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Preparation of Ba2FeNbO6 double perovskite ceramics from molten-salt synthesized powders and their dielectric and magnetic properties

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Abstract

Double perovskite Ba2FeNbO6 (BFN) ceramics were prepared from the molten-salt synthesized BFN powders. The BFN powders have a cubic structure with \( Fm\bar{3}m \) space group, confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Their average particle sizes increased with the annealing temperature and dwell time whereas decreased with the molten-salt content. X-ray photoemission spectra revealed both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions present in the BFN powders and oxygen in the forms of lattice oxygen and oxygen vacancies, while niobium was present as Nb5+. The BFN ceramics exhibited significant frequency-dependent dielectric behavior, and two kinds of dielectric relaxor processes were observed. Their activation energies were 0.16 eV and 0.47 eV, respectively. The electron hopping process (between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions) with the activation energy of 0.16 eV contributes the low-temperature dielectric relaxation process, and an activation energy of 0.47 eV associated with the high-temperature dielectric relaxation is originally from the barrier energy of the thermal motion of the oxygen vacancies. The dielectric relaxation observed at high-temperature region can be explained by Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization in the BFN ceramics. MH plots of the BFN ceramics at different temperatures revealed their antiferromagnetic nature and a weak ferromagnetic behavior at 2 K. The remanent magnetization (Mr) of the BFN ceramics was measured to be 1.75 emu/g at 2 K and coercive field (Hc) as 1.26 kOe. Magnetization splitting was observed at ~ 290 K between the temperature-dependent magnetizations of the BFN ceramics, which were measured under zero field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled modes with an external field of 1 kOe. In the ZFC curve, a maximum peak was observed at 14 K, corresponding to the Néel temperature (TN). The TN of the present BFN ceramics shifts toward low temperature as compared with those prepared by conventional solid-state reaction methods. Such a reduction of the Néel temperature is ascribed to the size effect.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11674161 and 11974170), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK20181250), higher education reform research project from Jiangsu Provincial Education Department (Grant no. 2017JSJG086), and undergraduate teaching reform project from Nanjing University (Grant No. X20191028402).

Author information

YL performed the synthesis and preparation of BFN powders and ceramics, and wrote this manuscript. XZ designed the experiments and modified the manuscript. ZP, HW, KL, and WX helped in measurements of dielectric and magnetic properties and XPS spectra data analyses. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Xinhua Zhu.

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Lu, Y., Pei, Z., Wu, H. et al. Preparation of Ba2FeNbO6 double perovskite ceramics from molten-salt synthesized powders and their dielectric and magnetic properties. J Mater Sci 55, 4179–4192 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-04329-3

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