Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 11, pp 4926–4939 | Cite as

Thermal stability of nanogradient microstructure produced by surface mechanical rolling treatment in Zircaloy-4

  • Chao Xin
  • Dan Yang
  • Qiaoyan SunEmail author
  • Lin XiaoEmail author
  • Jun Sun
Metals & corrosion
  • 183 Downloads

Abstract

A nano-/ultrafine grain gradient microstructure, which is composed of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) and low-angle grain boundaries or subgrains of dislocation–twin, was fabricated in Zircaloy-4 using surface mechanical rolling treatment (SMRT). Thermal stability of gradient microstructure has been investigated through characterizing the evolution of microstructure during post-SMRT annealing treatment from 400 to 600 °C using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results show that the gradient microstructure exhibits a good thermal stability at 400 °C, since the overall grain size remains similar, except a decrease in dislocation density due to recovery. In comparison, a hierarchical microstructure is formed after annealing at 600 °C. An obvious grain growth was observed at the depth of 50 μm. The activation energy for grain growth of nanograined Zircaloy-4 is estimated to be ~ 161 kJ/mol between 400 and 600 °C. Nano-/ultrafine grains predominantly consisting of HAGBs have the highest thermal stability. Both yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 decrease due to anneal, specifically at 600 °C.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully thank the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51671158, 51621063, 51471129), 973 Program of China (2014CB644003), and the 111 Project 2.0 (PB2018008).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Fang TH, Li WL, Tao NR, Lu K (2011) Revealing extraordinary intrinsic tensile plasticity in gradient nano-grained copper. Science 133:1587–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen G, Gao JW, Cui Y, Gao H, Guo X, Wu SZ (2018) Effects of strain rate on the low cycle fatigue behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy processed by SMAT. J Alloys Compd 735:536–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jelliti S, Richard C, Retraint D, Roland T, Chemkhi M, Demangel C (2013) Effect of surface nanocrystallization on the corrosion behavior of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Surf Coat Tech 224:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li W, Liu P, Ma FC, Rong YH (2009) Microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline nickel produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. J Mater Sci 44:2925–2930.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3386-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lu K (2014) Making strong nanomaterials ductile with gradients. Science 345:1455–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bagheri S, Guagliano M (2009) Review of shot peening processes to obtain nanocrystalline surfaces in metal alloys. Surf Eng 25(1):3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azadmanjiri J, Berndt CC, Kapoor A, Wen C (2015) Development of surface nano-crystallization in alloys by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 40:164–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grosdidier T, Novelli M (2019) Recent developments in the application of surface mechanical attrition treatments for improved gradient structures: processing parameters and surface reactivity. Mater Trans 60:1344–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shewmon PG (1969) Transformation in Metals. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu K (2016) Stabilizing nanostructures in metals using grain and twin boundary architectures. Nat Rev Mater 16019:1–13Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou X, Li XY, Lu K (2019) Size Dependence of Grain Boundary Migration in Metals under Mechanical Loading. Phys Rev Lett 122(126101):1–6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou X, Li XY, Lu K (2018) Enhanced thermal stability of nanograined metals below a critical grain size. Science 360:526–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang HW, Kelly PM, Shi YN, Zhang MX (2012) Thermal stability of nanocrystallized surface produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment in aluminum alloys. Surf Coat Tech 206:3970–3980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darling KA, VanLeeuwen BK, Koch CC, Scattergood RO (2010) Thermal stability of nanocrystalline Fe-Zr alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 527:3572–3580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ren XD, Yang XQ, Zhou WF, Huang JJ, Ren YP, Wang CC, Ye YX, Li L (2018) Thermal stability of surface nano-crystallization layer in AZ91D magnesium alloy induced by laser shock peening. Surf Coat Tech 334:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pandey V, Chattopadhyay K, Srinivas NCS, Singh V (2019) Thermal and microstructural stability of nanostructured surface of the aluminium alloy 7075. Mater Charact 151:242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boyer RR, Briggs RD (2005) The use of β titanium alloys in the aerospace industry. J Mater Eng Perform 14:681–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu Y, Jin B, Lu J (2015) Mechanical properties and thermal stability of nanocrystallized pure aluminum produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. Mater Sci Eng, A 636:446–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu XL, Jiang P, Chen L, Yuan FP, Zhu YT (2014) Extraordinary strain hardening by gradient structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111:7197–7201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li JJ, Weng GJ, Chen SH, Wu XL (2017) On strain hardening mechanism in gradient nanostructures. Int J Plast 88:89–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cox B (2005) Some thoughts on the mechanisms of in-reactor corrosion of zirconium alloys. J Nucl Mater 336:331–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.09.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zinkle SJ, Was GS (2013) Materials challenges in nuclear energy. Acta Mater 61:735–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tupin M, Verlet R, Colas K, Jublot M, Baldacchino G, Wolski K (2018) Effect of ion irradiation of the metal matrix on the oxidation rate of Zircaloy-4. Corros Sci 136:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campello D, Tardif N, Moula M, Baietto MC, Coret M, Desquines J (2017) Identification of the steady-state creep behavior of Zircaloy-4 claddings under simulated Loss-Of-Coolant Accident conditions based on a coupled experimental/numerical approach. Int J Solids Struct 115–116:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xin C, Sun QY, Xiao L, Sun J (2018) Biaxial fatigue property enhancement of gradient ultra-fine-grained Zircaloy-4 prepared by surface mechanical rolling treatment. J Mater Sci 53:12492–12503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-018-2391-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Valiev RZ, Korznikov AV, Mulyukov RR (1993) Structure and properties of ultrafine-grained materials produced by severe plastic deformation. Mater Sci Eng, A 168:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roland T, Retraint D, Lu K, Lu J (2007) Enhanced mechanical behavior of a nanocrystallised stainless steel and its thermal stability. Mater Sci Eng, A 445–446:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bacca M, Hayhurst DR, McMeeking RM (2015) Continuous dynamic recrystallization during severe plastic deformation. Mech Mater 90:148–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen WX, Hu BJ, Jia CN, Zheng CW, Li DZ (2019) Continuous dynamic recrystallization during the transient deformation in a Ni-30%Fe austenitic model alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 751:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hazra SS, Gazder AA, Pereloma EV (2009) Stored energy of a severely deformed interstitial free steel. Mater Sci Eng, A 524:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Novelli M, Bocher P, Grosdidier T (2018) Effect of cryogenic temperatures and processing parameters on gradient-structure of a stainless steel treated by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment. Mater Charact 139:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Atkinson HV (1988) Overview no. 65: theories of normal grain growth in pure single phase systems. Acta Metall 36:469–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vandermeer RA, Hu H (1994) On the grain growth exponent of pure iron. Acta Metall Mater 42:3071–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vieregge K, Herzig C (1990) Grain-boundary diffusion in α-zirconium: part I: self-diffusion. J Nucl Mater 173:118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Samih Y, Beausir B, Bolle B, Grosdidier T (2013) In-depth quantitative analysis of the microstructures produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Mater Charact 83:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of MaterialsXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations