Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 11, pp 4910–4925 | Cite as

High-strength ultrafine-grained titanium 99.99 manufactured by large strain plastic working

  • Krzysztof TopolskiEmail author
  • Bogusława Adamczyk-Cieślak
  • Halina Garbacz
Metals & corrosion


In this research, high-purity titanium (hp-Ti, 99.99 wt%) was subjected to a large strain via a cold plastic working process. To accumulate a relatively large plastic deformation in the workpiece, the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) technique was applied. The initial rod with a diameter of ∅50 mm was subjected to a multi-pass extrusion process, and, this way, rods with a diameter of ∅8 mm and ∅7 mm were obtained. In this paper, the results of an investigation of the structure and mechanical properties of the hp-Ti are presented. The size and shape of the grains of the as-received and extruded samples were examined, and an effective way of refining grain and strengthening hp-Ti using plastic working was demonstrated. Thanks to the process applied, an ultrafine-grained structure was obtained. In the transverse section, the average grain size determined by transmission electron microscopy was 117 nm on average. As a result of the extrusion, a significant increase in yield stress, tensile strength and microhardness was observed. Moreover, in this paper the overall potential of the HE technique was demonstrated. The results of this work confirm that it is possible to manufacture high-strength, ultrafine-grained high-purity titanium via cold plastic working.



This work was financially supported by the National Science Centre Poland [Grant Number 2018/29/B/ST8/02883]. The extrusion processes were conducted at the Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Celestynów, Poland. We would like to thank the team of this institute for their cooperation during the extrusion processes.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Materials Science and EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

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