Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 10, pp 4395–4407 | Cite as

Using thermochemical treatment for facilitating apatite formation on Ti-Nb-Sn alloys

  • Ana Carolina S. A. Rezende
  • Jiale WangEmail author
  • Yanwen Li
  • Alexandre Magnus Gomes Carvalho
  • Mauro V. de Barros Souza
  • Sauli SantosJr.
  • A. Martins
  • Alex Matos da Silva Costa
  • Alessandra Cremasco
  • Richard Landers
  • Douglas Machado
  • Alexandre PancottiEmail author
Materials for life sciences


Titanium alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications, and alloys based on the Ti-rich side of Ti-Nb-Sn system have presented material properties deserved for orthopedic implant applications. However, to our knowledge, the structural studies related to surface of these alloys are limited. Ti-18Nb-11Sn and Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloys were synthesized, and the influence of thermochemical treatment on the bioactivity was investigated. The alloys were synthesized by arc melting furnace and then were submitted to thermochemical treatment. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron micrograph analysis showed high crystallinity and maintenance of microstructure of the both alloys before and after thermochemical treatment. The results indicated that the Ti-18Nb-11Sn alloy was not demonstrated to be bioactive, while the Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloy slightly presented bioactivity, which increased after the thermochemical treatment. Meanwhile, the Ti-18Nb-11Sn alloy presented a low hardness value, making it not compatible with biomedical applications. However, the Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloy presented an acceptable hardness value for biomedical applications. We believe that the results reported herein suggest that the Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloy may be attractive for designing biomedical devices with improved performances toward the adhesion of apatite.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21703031), Shanghai Talent Development Funding. J.W. is thankful for the funds from Donghua University for Distinguished Research Fellow. The authors are pleased to acknowledge the staff of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for helping us in the beamline setup. The authors would like to thank Thiago Oliveira Lima for technical assistance and Prof. Pedro A. P. Nascente for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was financially supported by CAPES under Master Fellowship, FAPEG Project 07/2016 (23187) and CNPEM/LNLS (proposal D08A-SGM-2485).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Jataí, Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências Exatas and Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências da SaúdeUniversidade Federal de JataíJataíBrazil
  2. 2.College of ScienceDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Electronics and SystemsDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Shanghai Chest HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Departamento de Engenharia MecânicaUniversidade Estadual de MaringáMaringáBrazil
  6. 6.National Institute of Technology - INTRio de JaneiroBrazil
  7. 7.School of Applied SciencesUniversity of CampinasLimeiraBrazil
  8. 8.Instituto de Fisica IFGWUniversidade Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrazil

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