Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 3073–3091 | Cite as

Isochronal and isothermal phase transformation in β + αacicular Ti–55531

  • Fuwen Chen
  • Guanglong XuEmail author
  • Kechao Zhou
  • Hui Chang
  • Yuwen Cui
Metals & corrosion


Duplex aging is one of the common heat treatments in titanium alloys. The microstructure introduced in the first-step aging has an effect on the growth/dissolution of α in the second-step aging. In the present work, a β + αacicular microstructure is preset in Ti–55531 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr wt%) alloy. The isochronal and isothermal phase transformation kinetics in the second-step aging is studied by combining the dilatometer test with microstructure characterization and local composition mapping. The phase transformations and corresponding temperature ranges are determined as β → αacicular [643–845 K] and αacicular → β [845–1130 K] by isochronal annealing. A TTT diagram for isothermal transformation kinetics is plotted based on the transformed phase fraction and reproduced by Johnson–Mehl–Avrami theory. The calculated kinetic curves are in good agreement with experiment ones. The C-shaped TTT curves verify the classical nucleation and growth of α in the second-step aging. In comparison with Ti–55531 alloy with preset β + αlath microstructure (in authors’ previous work), the α precipitation exhibits prolonged incubation period and slowed average transformation rate, which is evidenced by a right shift of C-curves for the α precipitation portion along the time axis. However, the C-curves of α dissolution show a left shift on the TTT diagram. The precipitation kinetics of α aciculae from dilatometry is synchronous with that obtained from the diffusion of Al detected in STEM mapping, while the diffusion of slow-diffusion elements lags behind the structural transformation. The TTT diagram and the dataset of microstructure features obtained in the present work can be employed to optimize processing in duplex aging.



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Nos. 51801101 and 51701094], China Postdoctoral Science Foundation [Grant No. 2019M651812] and Independent Project from State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy and Innovation Driving Project from Central South University. Y. Cui also acknowledges the support from the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China [Grant No. JCKY2018414C020]. G. Xu acknowledges the support from Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province [Grant No. BK20171014].

Supplementary material

10853_2019_4146_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


  1. 1.
    Cotton JD, Briggs RD, Boyer RR, Tamirisakandala S, Russo P, Shchetnikov N, Fanning JC (2015) State of the art in beta titanium alloys for airframe applications. JOM 67:1281–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyer RR (1996) An overview on the use of titanium in the aerospace industry. Mater Sci Eng, A 213:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Raghunathan SL, Stapleton AM, Dashwood RJ, Jackson M, Dye D (2007) Micromechanics of Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al: in situ synchrotron characterisation and modelling. Acta Mater 55:6861–6872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivasishin OM, Markovsky PE, Matviychuk YV, Semiatin SL, Ward CH, Fox S (2008) A comparative study of the mechanical properties of high-strength β-titanium alloys. J Alloys Compd 457:296–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barriobero-Vila P, Requena G, Schwarz S, Warchomicka F, Buslaps T (2015) Influence of phase transformation kinetics on the formation of α in a β-quenched Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr alloy. Acta Mater 95:90–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen F, Xu G, Zhang X, Zhou K (2016) Exploring the Phase Transformation in β-Quenched Ti–55531 alloy during continuous heating via dilatometric measurement, microstructure characterization, and diffusion analysis. Metall Mater Trans A 47:5383–5394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen FW, Xu G, Zhang XY, Zhou KC, Cui Y (2017) Effect of α morphology on the diffusional β ↔ α transformation in Ti–55531 during continuous heating: dissection by dilatometer test, microstructure observation and calculation. J Alloys Compd 702:352–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang C, Zhao Y, Xin S, Zhou W, Li Q, Zeng W (2017) Effect of microstructure on tensile properties of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr alloy. J Alloys Compd 693:582–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang C, Zhao Y, Xin S, Zhou W, Li Q, Zeng W, Tan C (2017) High cycle fatigue behavior of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr titanium alloy with bimodal microstructure. J Alloys Compd 695:1966–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang C, Zhao Y, Xin S, Tan C, Zhou W, Li Q, Zeng W (2017) High cycle fatigue behavior of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr titanium alloy with lamellar microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 682:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Santhosh R, Geetha M, Rao MN (2017) Recent developments in heat treatment of beta titanium alloys for aerospace applications. Trans Indian Inst Metals 70:1681–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Santhosh R, Geetha M, Saxena VK, Nageswararao M (2014) Studies on single and duplex aging of metastable beta titanium alloy Ti–15V–3Cr–3Al–3Sn. J Alloys Compd 605:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Santhosh R, Geetha M, Saxena VK, Rao MN (2015) Effect of duplex aging on microstructure and mechanical behavior of beta titanium alloy Ti–15V–3Cr–3Al–3Sn under unidirectional and cyclic loading conditions. Int J Fatigue 73:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campanelli LC, da Silva PSCP, Bolfarini C (2016) High cycle fatigue and fracture behavior of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr alloy with BASCA and double aging treatments. Mater Sci Eng A 658:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ahmed M, Li T, Casillas G, Cairney JM, Wexler D, Pereloma EV (2015) The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–2Cr–1Fe during ageing. J Alloys Compd 629:260–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu CM, Wang HM, Tian XJ, Tang HB (2014) Subtransus triplex heat treatment of laser melting deposited Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe near β titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 590:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Welk BA (2010) Microstructural and property relationships in β-titanium alloy Ti–5553. Ohio State University, ColombusGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kar SK, Suman S, Shivaprasad S, Chaudhuri A, Bhattacharjee A (2014) Processing-microstructure-yield strength correlation in a near β Ti alloy, Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr. Mater Sci Eng A 610:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen F, Xu G, Zhang X, Zhou K (2017) Isothermal kinetics of β ↔ α transformation in Ti–55531 alloy influenced by phase composition and microstructure. Mater Des 130:302–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jia B, Yang Y, Ge P, Yang G (2011) Study on relationship between room-temperature properties of TC18 titanium alloy and structure character of α phase. Hot Work Tech 40:4–6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lütjering G, Williams JC (2007) Titanium. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gale WF, Totemeir TC (eds) (2004) Smithell’s metals reference book. Butterworth-Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tech Institute for Advanced Materials and College of Materials Science and EngineeringNanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Powder MetallurgyCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations