Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 1840–1853 | Cite as

Correlation between reversed austenite and mechanical properties in a low Ni steel treated by ultra-fast cooling, intercritical quenching and tempering

  • Qi-Yuan Chen
  • Jia-Kuan Ren
  • Zhang-Long Xie
  • Wei-Na Zhang
  • Jun Chen
  • Zhen-Yu LiuEmail author
Metals & corrosion
  • 94 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the correlation between reversed austenite formed at different tempering temperatures and mechanical properties in a low Ni steel treated by ultra-fast cooling, intercritical quenching and tempering was investigated in detail. It was found that reversed austenite was formed at fresh martensite and retained austenite during tempering. As tempering temperature increased, volume fraction and size of reversed austenite increased, alloy concentration in reversed austenite decreased, and reversed austenite stability was thus deteriorated. When tempering temperature is not higher than 590 °C, reversed austenite that remains completely stable at − 196 °C greatly improves cryogenic toughness. When tempering temperature reaches 610 °C and above, partial reversed austenite transforms into hard secondary fresh martensite at − 196 °C or even room temperature, which is harmful to cryogenic toughness. By tempering at 590 °C, an optimum combination of mechanical properties was achieved, which is comparable to that of 9% Ni steels.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB0305000), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (Grant No. N170708018) and the State Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant No. U1660117).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Syn CK, Fultz B, Morris JW (1978) Mechanical stability of retained austenite in tempered 9Ni steel. Metall Trans A 9:1635–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fultz B, Kim JI, Kim YH, Kim HJ, Fior GO, Morris JW (1985) The stability of precipitated austenite and the toughness of 9Ni steel. Metall Trans A 16:2237–2249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nakada N, Syarif J, Tsuchiyama T, Takaki S (2004) Improvement of strength–ductility balance by copper addition in 9%Ni steels. Mater Sci Eng A 374:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang M, Liu ZY, Li CG (2017) Correlations of Ni contents, formation of reversed austenite and toughness for Ni-containing cryogenic steels. Acta Metall Sin Engl Lett 30:238–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim JI, Syn CK, Morris JW (1983) Microstructural sources of toughness in QLT-treated 5.5Ni cryogenic steel. Metall Trans A 14:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang M, Liu ZY (2017) Effects of ultra-fast cooling after hot rolling and intercritical treatment on microstructure and cryogenic toughness of 3.5%Ni steel. J Mater Eng Perform 26:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang M, Liu ZY, Li CG (2017) Effects of ultra-fast cooling after hot rolling and lamellarizing on microstructure and cryogenic toughness of 5%Ni steel. Acta Metall Sin 53:947–956Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hu J, Du LX, Xu W, Zhai JH, Dong Y, Liu YJ, Misra RDK (2018) Ensuring combination of strength, ductility and toughness in medium-manganese steel through optimization of nano-scale metastable austenite. Mater Charact 136:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Babu SS, Specht ED, David SA, Karapetrova E, Zschack P, Peet M, Bhadeshia HKDH (2005) In-situ observations of lattice parameter fluctuations in austenite and transformation to bainite. Metall Mater Trans A 36:3281–3289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen J, Lv MY, Liu ZY, Wang GD (2016) Influence of heat treatments on the microstructural evolution and resultant mechanical properties in a low carbon medium Mn heavy steel plate. Metall Mater Trans A 47:2300–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zou Y, Xu YB, Hu ZP, Gu XL, Peng F, Tan XD, Chen SQ, Han DT, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2016) Austenite stability and its effect on the toughness of a high strength ultra-low carbon medium manganese steel plate. Mater Sci Eng A 675:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xie ZJ, Yuan SF, Zhou WH, Yang JR, Guo H, Shang CJ (2014) Stabilization of retained austenite by the two-step intercritical heat treatment and its effect on the toughness of a low alloyed steel. Mater Des 59:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu SL, Xiong ZH, Guo H, Shang CJ, Misra RDK (2017) The significance of multi-step partitioning: processing-structure-property relationship in governing high strength-high ductility combination in medium-manganese steels. Acta Mater 124:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hara T, Maruyama N, Shinohara Y, Asahi H, Shigesato G, Sugiyama M, Koseki T (2009) Abnormal α to γ transformation behavior of steels with a martensite and bainite microstructure at a slow reheating rate. ISIJ Int 49:1792–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ding R, Tang D, Zhao AM (2014) A novel design to enhance the amount of retained austenite and mechanical properties in low-alloyed steel. Scr Mater 88:21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moor ED, Matlock DK, Speer JG, Merwin MJ (2011) Austenite stabilization through manganese enrichment. Scr Mater 64:185–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kang S, Moor ED, Speer JG (2015) Retained austenite stabilization through solute partitioning during intercritical annealing in C-, Mn-, Al-, Si-, and Cr-alloyed steels. Metall Mater Trans A 46:1005–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Song H, Sohn SS, Kwak JH, Lee BJ, Lee S (2016) Effect of austenite stability on microstructural evolution and tensile properties in intercritically annealed medium-Mn lightweight steels. Metall Mater Trans A 47:2674–2685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiong XC, Chen B, Huang MX, Wang JF, Wang L (2013) The effect of morphology on the stability of retained austenite in a quenched and partitioned steel. Scr Mater 68:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mahieu J, Cooman BCD, Maki J (2002) Phase transformation and mechanical properties of Si-free CMnAl transformation-induced plasticity-aided steel. Metall Mater Trans A 33:2573–2580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takaki S, Fukunaga K, Syarif J, Tsuchiyama T (2004) Effect of grain refinement on thermal stability of metastable austenitic steel. Mater Trans 45:2245–2251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Challa VSA, Wan XL, Somani MC, Karjalainen LP, Misra RDK (2014) Significance of interplay between austenite stability and deformation mechanisms in governing three-stage work hardening behavior of phase-reversion induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) stainless steels with high strength-high ductility combination. Scr Mater 86:60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luo HW, Shi J, Wang C, Cao WQ, Sun XJ, Dong H (2011) Experimental and numerical analysis on formation of stable austenite during the intercritical annealing of 5Mn steel. Acta Mater 59:4002–4014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Han J, Lee SJ, Jung JG, Lee YK (2014) The effects of the initial martensite microstructure on the microstructure and tensile properties of intercritically annealed Fe–9Mn–0.05C steel. Acta Mater 78:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi J, Sun XJ, Wang MQ, Hui WJ, Dong H, Cao WQ (2010) Enhanced work-hardening behavior and mechanical properties in ultrafine-grained steels with large-fractioned metastable austenite. Scr Mater 63:815–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee SJ, Lee S, Cooman BCD (2011) Mn partitioning during the intercritical annealing of ultrafine-grained 6% Mn transformation-induced plasticity steel. Scr Mater 64:649–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bilmes PD, Solari M, Llorente CL (2001) Characteristics and effects of austenite resulting from tempering of 13Cr–NiMo martensitic steel weld metals. Mater Charact 46:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu J, Zhang JM, Sun GS, Du LX, Liu Y, Dong Y, Misra RDK (2019) High strength and ductility combination in nano-/ultrafine-grained medium-Mn steel by tuning the stability of reverted austenite involving intercritical annealing. J Mater Sci 54:6565–6578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan P, Liu ZD, Bao HS, Weng YQ, Liu W (2014) Effect of tempering temperature on the toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel. Mater Des 54:874–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li YJ, Chen D, Liu D, Kang J, Yuan G, Mao QJ, Misra RDK, Wang GD (2018) Combined thermo-mechanical controlled processing and dynamic carbon partitioning of low carbon Si/Al–Mn steels. Mater Sci Eng A 732:298–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Rolling and AutomationNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Nanjing Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.NanjingChina

Personalised recommendations