Synthesis and characterization of (Bi1−xRx)2Mn4O10: structural, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analyses for R = Nd, Sm and Eu
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Mullite-type Bi2Mn4O10 and R2Mn4O10 (R = rare earth element) compounds are isostructural and are of ongoing research attentions because of their interesting crystal structures and the associated multiferroic properties. We report three series of mullite-type (Bi1−xRx)2Mn4O10 compounds for R = Nd, Sm and Eu prepared by solid-state synthesis methods. Each phase of the solid solutions is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction followed by Rietveld refinement. Evolutions of the metric parameters, interatomic bond distances, average crystallite size and microstrain are carried out with respect to the compositional x-value. This study also emphasizes on how the crystal chemistry changes upon successive change of the stereochemical activity of the lone electron pair of the Bi3+ cation using the Wang–Liebau eccentricity parameter. Selective vibrational features have been discussed based on the Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The thermal stability of the end-members is analyzed from the thermogravimetric data, demonstrating that the end-member Bi2Mn4O10 differently decomposes than that of the other R2Mn4O10 compounds.
Kowsik Ghosh gratefully thanks the University of Bremen for the financial supports. He also acknowledges DAAD (Funding ID: 57340829) and BISIP (Bremen International Students Internship Program) for their supports in partly finance this project.
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