Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 13, pp 9775–9796 | Cite as

A piecewise constitutive model, microstructure and fracture mechanism of a nickel-based superalloy 750H during high-temperature tensile deformation

  • Kaimeng Wang
  • Hongyang Jing
  • Lianyong XuEmail author
  • Yongdian Han
  • Lei Zhao
  • Bo Xiao
  • Shangqing Yang


In order to understand the high-temperature deformation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy, a range of tensile tests were carried out at 720, 750, and 780 °C with strain rates ranging from 5 × 10−5 to 5 × 10−3 s−1. A piecewise constitutive model was applied to describe the work hardening-dynamic recovery and dynamic flow softening behaviors. The predicted flow stresses have a good agreement with the experimental results. Microstructures in the fracture frontier of the ruptured specimens were analyzed to further understand the fracture mechanism. Twinning and dislocation structures were surveyed at the tested conditions. Twin structure decreased as temperature increased. These two precipitates were characterized: M23C6 carbide located in the grain boundary and spherical γ′ phase in the matrix. Precipitates, twin and dislocation structures are the dominant strengthening mechanism of the superalloy during high-temperature deformation. Orientations < 111 >//RD and < 001 >//RD were detected as the main texture structure. Cavities formed near the precipitates and triple grain boundary. On the basis of fracture surface observations, the 750H superalloy shows both intergranular and transgranular fracture mode in the tested conditions. The dimples became small and shallow as the strain rate increased.



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51475326) and Demonstration Project of National Marine Economic Innovation (BHSF2017–22).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Evans N, Maziasz PJ, Swindeman RW et al (2004) Microstructure and phase stability in INCONEL alloy 740 during creep. Scr Mater 51:503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu LR, Jin T, Liu JL, Sun XF, Hu ZQ (2013) Effect of ruthenium on γ′ precipitation behavior and evolution in single crystal superalloys. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 23:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jahangiri MR, Arabi H, Boutorabi SMA (2014) Comparison of microstructural stability of IN939 superalloy with two different manufacturing routes during long-time aging. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 24:1717–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pollock TM, Tin S (2006) Nickel-based superalloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry, microstructure and properties. J Propuls Power 22:361–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuo CM, Yang YT, Bor HY, Wei CN, Tai CC (2009) Aging effects on the microstructure and creep behavior of Inconel 718 superalloy. Mater Sci Eng A 510:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang J, Dong JX, Zhang MC, Xie XS (2013) Hot working characteristics of nickel-base superalloy 740H during compression. Mater Sci Eng A 566:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo Y, Li T, Wang C, Hou S, Wang B (2016) Microstructure and phase precipitate behavior of Inconel 740H during aging. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 26:1598–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang J, Zhang YF, Ma JY, Li JX, Zhang Z (2017) Microcrack nucleation and propagation investigation of Inconel 740H alloy under in situhigh temperature tensile test. Acta Metall Sin 53:1627–1635Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chong Y, Liu ZD, Godfrey A, Liu W, Weng YQ (2014) Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 740H during aging at 750 °C. Mater Sci Eng A 589:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fedoseeva A, Tkachev E, Dudko V, Dudova N, Kaibyshev R (2017) Effect of alloying on interfacial energy of precipitation/matrix in high-chromium martensitic steels. J Mater Sci 52:4197–4209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rösler J, Götting M, Del G, Böttger Kopp R, Wolske M et al (2003) Wrought Ni-base superalloys for steam turbine applications beyond 700 °C. Adv Eng Mater 5:469–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xie X, Zhao S, Dong J, Smith G, Patel S (2005) An investigation of structure stability and its improvement on new developed Ni–Cr–Co–Mo–Nb–Ti–Al Superalloy. Mater Sci Forum 475–479:613–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klöwer J, Husemann RU, Bader M (2013) Development of nickel based on alloy 617 for components in 700 °C power plants. Procedia Eng 55:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guan S, Gui CY (2015) A newly developed wrought Ni–Fe–Cr based superalloy for advanced ultra-supercritical power plant applications beyond 700 °C. Acta Metall Sin 28:1083–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saunders S, Monteiro M, Rizzo F (2008) The oxidation behaviour of metals and alloys at high temperatures in atmospheres containing water vapour: a review. Prog Mater Sci 53:775–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin F, Xie X, Zhao S (2011) Selection of superalloys for superheater tubes of domestic 700 A-USC boilers. J Chin Soc Power Eng 31:960–968Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song X, Tang L, Chen Z, Zhou R (2017) Micro-mechanism during long-term creep of a precipitation-strengthened Ni-based superalloy. J Mater Sci 52:4587–4598. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blum R, Vanstone RW (2003) Materials development for boilers and steam turbines operating at 700°C. In: Proceedings of the 6th international Charles Parsons turbine conference, Dublin, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shingledecker J, Purgert R, Rawls P (2013) Current status of the U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC materials technology research and development program. In: Proceedings from the 7th international conference on advances in materials technology for fossil power plants, Hawaii, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fukuda M (2013) Advanced USC technology development in Japan. In: Proceedings from the 7th international conference on advances in materials technology for fossil power plants, Hawaii, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu ZD, Bao HS, Yang G, Xu SQ, Wang QJ (2013) Material advancement used for 700°C A-USC-PP in China. In: Proceedings from the 7th international conference on advances in materials technology for fossil power plants, Hawaii, USAGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Viswanathan R, Sarver J, Tanzosh JM (2006) boiler materials for ultra-supercritical coal power plants-steamside oxidation. J Mater Eng Perform 15:255–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jena AK, Chaturvedi MC (1984) The role of alloying elements in the design of nickel-base superalloys. J Mater Sci 19:3121–3139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holt RT, Wallace W (1976) Impurities and trace elements in nickel-base superalloys. Int Mater Rev 21:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hajari A, Morakabati M, Abbasi SM, Badri H (2017) Constitutive modeling for high-temperature flow behavior of Ti–6242S alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 681:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin YC, Chen XM (2011) A critical review of experimental results and constitutive descriptions for metals and alloys in hot working. Mater Des 32:1733–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin YC, Nong FQ, Chen XM, Chen DD, Chen MS (2017) Microstructural evolution and constitutive models to predict hot deformation behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy. Vacuum 137:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Satheesh Kumar SS, Raghu T, Bhattacharjee PP et al (2015) Constitutive modeling for predicting peak stress characteristics during hot deformation of hot isostatically processed nickel-base superalloy. J Mater Sci 50:6444–6456. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Samantaray D, Mandal S, Bhaduri AK (2009) A comparative study on Johnson Cook, modified Zerilli–Armstrong and Arrhenius-type constitutive models to predict elevated temperature flow behaviour in modified 9Cr–1Mo steel. Comput Mater Sci 47:568–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhao Y, Sun J, Li J, Yan Y, Wang P (2017) A comparative study on Johnson–Cook and modified Johnson–Cook constitutive material model to predict the dynamic behavior laser additive manufacturing FeCr alloy. J Alloys Compd 723:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lin YC, Chen X, Liu G (2010) A modified Johnson–Cook model for tensile behaviors of typical high-strength alloy steel. Mater Sci Eng, A 527:6980–6986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang X, Huang C, Zou B, Liu H, Zhu H, Wang J (2013) Dynamic behavior and a modified Johnson–Cook constitutive model of Inconel 718 at high strain rate and elevated temperature. Mater Sci Eng, A 580:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xiao B, Xu L, Zhao L, Jing H, Han Y (2017) Tensile mechanical properties, constitutive equations, and fracture mechanisms of a novel 9% chromium tempered martensitic steel at elevated temperatures. Mater Sci Eng, A 690:104–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lin YC, Wen DX, Deng J, Liu G, Chen J (2014) Constitutive models for high-temperature flow behaviors of a Ni-based superalloy. Mater Des 59:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lin YC, Li KK, Li HB, Chen J, Chen XM, Wen DX (2015) New constitutive model for high-temperature deformation behavior of Inconel 718 superalloy. Mater Des 74:108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wen DX, Lin YC, Li XH, Singh SK (2018) Hot deformation characteristics and dislocation substructure evolution of a nickel-base alloy considering effects of δ phase. J Alloys Compd 764:1008–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wu YS, Zhang MC, Xie XS, Dong JX, Lin FS, Zhao SQ (2016) Hot deformation characteristics and processing map analysis of a new designed nickel-based alloy for 700 °C A-USC power plant. J Alloys Compd 656:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yang XW, Li WY, Ma J, Hu ST, He Y, Li L, Xiao B (2016) Thermo-physical simulation of the compression testing for constitutive modeling of GH4169 superalloy during linear friction welding. J Alloys Compd 656:395–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cingara A, McQueen HJ (1992) New formula for calculating flow curves from high temperature constitutive data for 300 austenitic steels. J Mater Process Technol 36:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bönisch M, Wu Y, Sehitoglu H (2018) Hardening by slip-twin and twin-twin interactions in FeMnNiCoCr. Acta Mater 153:391–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang TT, Wang CS, Guo JT, Zhou LZ (2013) Stability of microstructure and mechanical properties of GH984G alloy during long-term thermal exposure. Mater Sci Forum 747–748:647–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu YH, Wang J, Kang MD, Mao FF, Li JZ, Wang GX, He SX, Gao HY, Sun BD (2018) Microstructure evolution and mechanical performance of nickel based superalloy C1023 at elevated temperatures. Mater Charact 138:174–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li YQ, Liu JY (1992) Precipitation and degeneration of grain boundary Cr7C3 and M4B3 in Ni–Cr–AI–Ti nickel-base superalloys. J Mater Sci 27:6635–6640. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yan JB, Gu YF, Sun F, Michinari Y, Zhong ZH, Yuan Y, Lu JT (2015) Microstructural study in a Fe–Ni-base superalloy during creep-rupture at intermediate temperature. Mater Sci Eng A 639:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Was GS (1990) Grain-boundary chemistry and intergranular fracture in austenitic nickel-base alloys—a review. Corrosion 46:319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rai K, Tripathy HP, Hajra RN, Raju S, Saibaba S, Jayakumar T (2016) Measurement of high temperature phase stability and thermophysical properties of alloy 740. Mater Sci Technol 32(5):488–497Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of EnginesTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations