Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 13, pp 9362–9371 | Cite as

Synthesis, growth, optical, photoconductivity and specific heat properties of potassium borodicitrate (KBDC) single crystal

  • M. K. Dhatchaiyini
  • G. Rajasekar
  • A. BhaskaranEmail author
Chemical routes to materials


Nonlinear optical high-quality single crystals of potassium borodicitrate (KBDC) were grown by low-temperature solution growth slow evaporation technique. The crystal structure and quality of the grown crystal were examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. The transmittance spectrum measured from the as-grown crystal exhibits wide range of transparency from UV to visible region. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Z-scan technique. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) of KBDC single crystal is found to be 4.1130 × 10−9 esu. The laser-induced damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, the photoconductivity and specific heat capacity of the crystal were measured, and the observed results are discussed in detail.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Nalwa HS, Miyata Seizo (1997) Nonlinear optics of organic molecules and polymers. CRC Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prasad PN, Williams DJ (1991) Introduction to nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and polymers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu XJ, Wang ZY, Xu D, Wang XQ, Song YY, Yu WT, Guo WF (2007) Investigation on the micro-crystallization of l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) crystals. J Alloys Compd 441:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chuangtian C, Boachang Wu, Aidong J, Guiming You (1983) A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal—β-BaB2O4. Sci China, Ser B 28(3):235–243Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen C, Wu Y, Jiang A, Wu B, You G, Li R, Lin S (1989) New nonlinear-optical crystal: LiB3O5. J Opt Soc Am B 6(4):616–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prabha K, Feng B, Chen H, Bhagavannarayana G, Sagayaraj P (2011) Growth and characterization of a new non-linear optical tris lead tris barium borate (TLTBB) single crystal. Mater Chem Phys 127:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dhanuskodi S, Vasantha K (2005) X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and thermal studies on a potential semiorganic NLO material: lithium bis-L-malato borate. Spectrochim Acta A 61:1777–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Justin Raj C, Krishnan S, Dinakaran S, Mary NavisPriya S, Uthrakumar R, Jerome Das S (2008) Growth and characterization of novel nonlinear optical potassium Boromalate Monohydrate (KBM) single crystal grown by modified Sankaranarayanan Ramasamy (SR) method. Cryst Growth Des 8(11):3956–3958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chithambaram V, Jerome Das S, ArivudaiNambi R, Krishnan S (2011) Synthesis, growth and characterization of novel semiorganic nonlinear optical potassium boro-succinate (KBS) single crystals. Opt Laser Technol 43:1229–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jananakumar Deepa, Mani P (2013) Synthesis, growth and characterization of novel semiorganic nonlinear optical potassium boro-oxalate (KBO) single crystals. Mater Phys Mech 16:92–100Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zviedre II, Fundamenskii VS, Krasnikor VV, Kolesnikova GP (1984) Crystal structure of potassium borodicitrate (Dicitratoborate). Akad NaukLatv SSR Ser Khim 25:95–101Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sasaki Takatomo, Mori Yusuke, Yoshimura Masashi, Yap Yoke Khin, Kamimura Tomosumi (2000) Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals: key materials for generation of visible and UV light. Mater Sci Eng, A 30:1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ramki C, Ezhil Vizhi R (2016) Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nonlinear optical material: potassium sodium hydroxide borate hydrate (KSB) single crystal. Mater Lett. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zeng L, Zha M, Ardoino M, Franzosi P, Zanotti L, Zuccalli G, Paorici C (1996) Solution crystal growth of urea and derivatives for nonlinear optical applications. J Cryst Growth 166:528–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jun Jun Lu, Ulrich Joachim (2005) The influence of supersaturation on crystal morphology-experimental and theoretical study. Cryst Res Technol 40:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khandpekar MM, Dongare SS, Patil SB, Pati SP (2012) Growth, structural, optical, mechanical studies on acid mixed glycine metal salt (GABN) crystal as potential NLO material. Opt Commun 285:1253–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anis Mohd, Baig MI, Muley GG, Rabbani G, Shirsat MD, Shkir Mohd, Ghramh HA (2018) Gamma glycine crystal firstly grown from solvent of salicylic acid for efficient second harmonic generation of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser light. Mater Lett 233:238–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anis Mohd, Baig MI, Hussaini SS, Shirsat MD, Shkir Mohd, Ghramh HA (2018) Linear and nonlinear optical analysis on semiorganic L-proline cadmium chloride single crystal. Chin Phys B 27:47801–47807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anis Mohd, Muley GG, Baig MI, Rabbani G, Ghramh HA, Ramteke SP (2019) Doping effect of Ni2+ on structural, UV-visible, SHG efficiency, dielectric and microhardness traits of KH2PO4 (KDP) crystal. Optik 178:752–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anis Mohd, Pandian MS, Baig MI, Ramasamy P, Muley GG (2018) Monocrystal growth and characterization study of α- and γ-polymorph of glycine to explore superior performance of γ-glycine crystal. Mater Res Innovations 22:409–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lal K, Bhagavannarayana G (1989) A high-resolution diffuse X-ray scattering study of defects in dislocation-free silicon crystals grown by the float-zone method and comparison with Czochralski-grown crystals. J Appl Crystallogr 22:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Batterman BW, Cole H (1964) Dynamical diffraction of X rays by perfect crystals. Rev Mod Phys 36:681–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Speakman SA (2012) Introduction to high resolution X-ray diffraction of epitaxial thin film. MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Cambridge.
  24. 24.
    Zawilski KT, Setzler SD, Schunemann PG, Pollak TM (2006) Increasing the laser-induced damage threshold of single-crystal ZnGeP2. J Opt Soc Am B 23:2310–2316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ramteke SP, Baig MI, Shkir Mohd, Kalainathan S, Shirsat MD, Muley GG, Anis Mohd (2018) Novel report on SHG efficiency, Z-scan, laser damage threshold, photoluminescence, dielectric and surface microscopic studies of hybrid inorganic ammonium zinc sulphate hydrate single crystal. Opt Laser Technol 104:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Azhar SM, Rabbani G, Shirsat MD, Hussaini SS, Baig MI, Ghramh HA, Anis Mohd (2018) Luminescence, laser induced nonlinear optical and surface microscopic studies of potassium thiourea chloride crystal. Optik 165:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith WL (1978) Laser-induced breakdown in optical materials. Opt Eng 17:489–503Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vijayan N, Bhagavannarayana G, Ramesh Babu R, Gopalakrishnan R, Maurya KK, Ramasamy P (2006) A comparative study on solution-and bridgman-grown single crystals of benzimidazole by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared, microhardness, laser damage threshold, and second-harmonic generation measurements. Cryst Growth Des 6(6):1542–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karuppasamy P, Sivasubramani V, Senthil Pandian M, Ramasamy P (2016) growth and characterization of semi-organic third order nonlinear optical (NLO) potassium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (KDNB) single crystal. RSC Adv 6:109105–109123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xie Fali, Baichang Wu, You Guiming, Chen Chuangtian (1991) Characterization of LiB3O5 crystal for second-harmonic generation. Opt Lett 16:1237–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vijayalakshmi A, Balraj Vidyavathy (2017) Optical, thermal, laser damage threshold, dielectric studies and Z-scan technique of novel semiorganic nlo material: sodium Boro Succinate (NaBS). U.P.B Sci Bull Ser B 79(1):221–231Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koechner W (2006) Solid-state laser engineering, 6th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Joshi VN (1990) Photoconductivity. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Adhikari S, Seth SK, Kar T (2013) Structural studies and physiochemical properties of l-valine hydrochloride monohydrate. Cryst Eng Commun 15:7372–7379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van Stryland Eric W, Sheik-Bahae Mansoor (1998) Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities, characterization techniques and tabulations for organic nonlinear materials. Marcel Dekker., Inc, New York, pp 655–692Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ali Qusay Mohammed, Palanisamy PK (2005) Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser. Optik 116:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Azhar SM, Hussaini SS, Shirsat MD, Rabbani G, Shkir Mohd, Alfaify S, Ghramh HA, Baig MI, Anis Mohd (2018) Growth and optical studies of tris (thiourea) potassium barium sulphate crystal: a novel semiorganic NLO bimetallic crystal. Mater Res Innovations. Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alfaify S, Shkir Mohd, Ganesh V, Anis Mohd, Yahia IS (2018) A comprehensive investigation on core optoelectronic and laser properties of ZTS single crystals: an effect of Mg2+ doping. Appl Phys B 124:196–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anis Mohd, Shkir Mohd, Baig MI, Ramteke SP, Muley GG, AlFaify S, Ghramh HA (2018) Experimental and computational studies of L-tartaric acid single crystal grown at optimized pH. J Mol Struct 1170:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saravanan M, Sabari Girisuni TC, Vinitha G (2016) Third-order nonlinear optical properties and power limiting behaviour of magnesium ferrite under CW laser (532 nm, 50 mW) excitation. J Mater Sci 51:3289–3296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dhanaraj PV, Rajesh NP (2011) Investigations on crystal growth, structural, optical, dielectric, mechanical and thermal properties of a novel optical crystal: nicotinium nitrate monohydrate. J Cryst Growth 318:974–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Anis Mohd, Muley GG, Shkir Mohd, Alfaify S, Ghramh HA (2018) Comparative analysis on microhardness and third order nonlinear optical traits of pure and Nd3+ doped zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) crystal. Mater Sci Poland. Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ganesh V, Haritha L, Anis Mohd, Shkir Mohd, Yahia IS, Singh Arun, AlFaify S (2018) Structural, morphological, optical and third order nonlinear optical response of spin coated NiO thin films: an effect of N doping. Solid State Sci. Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shaikh RN, Anis Mohd, Shirsat MD, Hussaini SS (2018) Emphasized analysis on linear and laser induced nonlinear optical traits of citrulline doped NH4H2PO4 (ADP) Crystal. Optik 154:435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsPresidency CollegeChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations