Advertisement

Microstructural evolution in titanium matrix composites processed by multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing

  • Juan Xiang
  • Yuanfei HanEmail author
  • Guangfa Huang
  • Jianwen Le
  • Yue Chen
  • Lv Xiao
  • Weijie LuEmail author
Metals

Abstract

In this study, in situ (TiB + La2O3)/Ti–6Al–4V composites were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) from 1 to 3 passes, and the microstructural evolution was quantitatively investigated. The results show that dislocation slip and recombination are the main formation mechanisms of the ultrafine-grained structure. Geometrically necessary boundaries (~ 200 nm) and incidental dislocation boundaries formed cell blocks. Deformation twins were observed in ECAPed titanium matrix composites (TMCs) after the second and third passes. The grain refinement after the first pass was the most remarkable but was not homogeneous. The average grain size (AGS) was further reduced to 0.28 nm after the second pass, and the microstructure became homogeneous with increasing equivalent strain. The AGS changed little, but the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries with angles above 72° increased to approximately 19% after the third pass. TiB short fibers and La2O3 particles influenced the formation of ultrafine grains (UFGs) at the matrix/reinforcement interface region in different ways. Small La2O3 particles tend to reinforce TMCs by hindering dislocation motion through a Zener drag effect. By contrast, TiB short fibers facilitate recrystallization and the formation of UFGs through nucleation stimulated by particles and interaction with dislocations.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.: U1602274, 51875349, 51871150, 51821001), the Aeronautical Science Foundation (Grant No.: 20173625005), Shanghai Science and Technology Committee Innovation Grant (17JC1402600), the Equipment Pre-Research Foundation (41422010509) and the 111 Project (Grant No.: B16032).

References

  1. 1.
    Huang LJ, Geng L, Peng HX (2010) In situ (TiBw + TiCp)/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement distribution. Mater Sci Eng, A 527:6723–6727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huang LQ, Wang LH, Qian M, Zou J (2017) High tensile-strength and ductile titanium matrix composites strengthened by TiB nanowires. Scr Mater 141:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cao Z, Wang XD, Li JL, Wu Y, Zhang HP, Guo JQ, Wang SQ (2017) Reinforcement with graphene nanoflakes in titanium matrix composites. J Alloys Compd 696:498–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sauvage X, Wilde G, Divinski SV, Horita Z, Valiev RZ (2012) Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena. Mater Sci Eng, A 540:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han YF, Li JX, Huang GF, Lv YT, Shao X, Lu WJ, Zhang D (2015) Effect of ECAP numbers on microstructure and properties of titanium matrix composite. Mater Des 750:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang LQ, Wang XT, Zhang LC, Lu WJ (2015) Ultrafine processing of (TiB + TiC)/TC18 composites processed by ECAP via B c route. Mater Sci Eng, A 645:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salimyanfard F, Toroghinejad MR, Ashrafizadeh F, Jafari M (2011) EBSD analysis of nano-structured copper processed by ECAP. Mater Sci Eng, A 528(16–17):5348–5355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tański T, Snopiński P, Prusik K, Sroka M (2017) The effects of room temperature ECAP and subsequent aging on the structure and properties of the Al–3%Mg aluminium alloy. Mater Charact 133:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Minárik P, Král R, Čížek J, Chmelík F (2016) Effect of different c/a ratio on the microstructure and mechanical properties in magnesium alloys processed by ECAP. Acta Mater 107:83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen YJ, Li YJ, Walmsley JC, Dumoulin S, Skaret PC, Roven HJ (2010) Microstructure evolution of commercial pure titanium during equal channel angular pressing. Mater Sci Eng, A 527(3):789–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawałko J, Wroński M, Bieda M, Sztwiertnia K, Wierzbanowski K, Wojtas D, Łagoda M, Ostachowski P, Pachla W, Kulczyk M (2018) Microstructure of titanium on complex deformation paths: comparison of ECAP, KOBO and HE techniques. Mater Charact 141:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qarni MJ, Sivaswamy G, Rosochowski A, Boczkal S (2017) On the evolution of microstructure and texture in commercial purity titanium during multiple passes of incremental equal channel angular pressing (I-ECAP). Mater Sci Eng, A 699:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen YJ, Li YJ, Walmsley JC, Dumoulin S, Gireesh SS, Armada S, Skaret PC, Roven HJ (2011) Quantitative analysis of grain refinement in titanium during equal channel angular pressing. Scr Mater 64(9):904–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim HY, Ikeharaa Y, Kim JI, Hosoda H, Miyazaki S (2006) Martensitic transformation, shape memory effect and superelasticity of Ti–Nb binary alloys. Acta Mater 54(9):2419–2429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang LJ, Lu CJ, Yuan B, Wei SL, Cui XP, Geng L (2016) Comparative study on superplastic tensile behaviors of the as-extruded Ti6Al4V alloys and TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with tailored architecture. Mater Des 93:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu M, Li JY, Ma Y, Yuan TY, Mei QS (2016) Surface nanocrystallization and property of Ti6Al4V alloy induced by high pressure surface rolling. Surf Coat Technol 289:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lütjering G (1998) Influence of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of (α + β) titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 243:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tan JC, Tan MJ (2003) Dynamic continuous recrystallization characteristics in two stage deformation of Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy sheet. Mater Sci Eng, A 339:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gourdet S, Montheillet F (2003) A model of continuous dynamic recrystallization. Acta Mater 51:2685–2699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li BL, Godfrey A, Meng QC, Liu Q, Hansen N (2004) Microstructural evolution of IF-steel during cold rolling. Acta Mater 52(4):1069–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hughes DA, Hansen N, Bammann DJ (2003) Geometrically necessary boundaries, incidental dislocation boundaries and geometrically necessary dislocations. Scr Mater 48(2):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao Z, To S (2018) An investigation of resolved shear stress on activation of slip systems during ultraprecision rotary cutting of local anisotropic Ti–6Al–4V alloy: models and experiments. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 134:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boehlert CJ, Tamirisakandala S, Curtin WA, Miracle DB (2009) Assessment of in situ TiB whisker tensile strength and optimization of TiB-reinforced titanium alloy design. Scr Mater 61(3):245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iwahashi Y, Wang JT, Horita Z, Nemoto M, Langdon TG (1996) Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials. Scr Mater 35(2):143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibbons SL, Abrahams RA, Vaughan MW, Barber RE, Harris RC, Arroyave R, Karaman I (2018) Microstructural refinement in an ultra-high strength martensitic steel via equal channel angular pressing. Mater Sci Eng, A 725:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Higuera-Cobos OF, Berríos-Ortiz JA, Cabrera JM (2014) Texture and fatigue behavior of ultrafine grained copper produced by ECAP. Mater Sci Eng, A 609:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Esmaeili A, Shaeri MH, Noghani MT, Razaghian A (2018) Fatigue behavior of AA7075 aluminium alloy severely deformed by equal channel angular pressing. J Alloys Compd 757:324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Langdon TG (2007) The principles of grain refinement in equal-channel angular pressing. Mater Sci Eng, A 462(1–2):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guo Z, Miodownik AP, Saunders N, Schillé J-Ph (2006) Influence of stacking-fault energy on high temperature creep of alpha titanium alloys. Scr Mater 54(12):2175–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huang K, Logé RE (2016) A review of dynamic recrystallization phenomena in metallic materials. Mater Des 111:548–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Agnoli A, Bozzolo N, Logé R, Franchet JM, Laigo J, Bernacki M (2014) Development of a level set methodology to simulate grain growth in the presence of real secondary phase particles and stored energy—application to a nickel-base superalloy. Comput Mater Sci 89:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hertzberg RW (1976) Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shang XQ, Cui ZS, Fu MW (2017) Dynamic recrystallization based ductile fracture modeling in hot working of metallic materials. Int J Plast 95:105–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High Temperature Materials and Precision FormingShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Kunming Metallurgical Research InstituteKunmingChina
  4. 4.Shanghai Spaceflight Precision Machinery InstituteChina Aerospace Science and Technology CorporationShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations