Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 9, pp 7333–7355 | Cite as

Improving corrosion resistance of additively manufactured nickel–titanium biomedical devices by micro-arc oxidation process

  • Amir Dehghanghadikolaei
  • Hamdy Ibrahim
  • Amirhesam Amerinatanzi
  • Mahdi Hashemi
  • Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam
  • Mohammad ElahiniaEmail author
Metals
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

Nickel–titanium (NiTi) alloys have recently attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties, i.e., shape memory effect and superelasticity. In addition, these promising alloys demonstrate unique biocompatibility, represented in their high stability and corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, qualifying them to be used inside the human body. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) processes have been envisioned as an enabling method for the efficient production of NiTi components with complex geometries as patient-specific implants. In spite of its great capabilities, AM as a novel fabrication process may reduce the corrosion resistance of NiTi parts leading to the excess release of the harmful Ni ions as the main corrosion byproducts. The main goal of this study is to create and evaluate a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating in order to enhance the corrosion resistance of additively manufacture NiTi medical devices. To this end, the process voltage and electrolyte used to produce MAO coating have been investigated and optimized. The corrosion characteristics of the MAO-coated specimens revealed that the proposed coating methodology significantly improves the corrosion resistance of NiTi parts produced using AM process.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Jinno T et al (1998) Osseointegration of surface-blasted implants made of titanium alloy and cobalt–chromium alloy in a rabbit intramedullary model. J Biomed Mater Res A 42(1):20–29Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moghaddam NS et al (2016) Metals for bone implants: safety, design, and efficacy. Biomanuf Rev 1(1):1–16Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mehrpouya M et al (2018) Laser welding of NiTi shape memory sheets using a diode laser. Opt Laser Technol 108:142–149Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reece PL (2007) Progress in smart materials and structures. Nova Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mehrabi R et al (2015) Microplane modeling of shape memory alloy tubes under tension, torsion, and proportional tension–torsion loading. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 26(2):144–155Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Amerinatanzi A et al (2017) Application of the superelastic NiTi spring in Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) to create normal ankle joint behavior. Bioengineering 4(4):95Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moghaddam NS et al (2018) Anisotropic tensile and actuation properties of NiTi fabricated with selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng, A 724:220–230Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andani MT et al (2014) Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering. Acta Biomaterialia 10(10):4058–4070Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Köhl M et al (2011) Characterization of porous, net-shaped NiTi alloy regarding its damping and energy-absorbing capacity. Mater Sci Eng A 528(6):2454–2462Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wazen RM et al (2010) Initial evaluation of bone ingrowth into a novel porous titanium coating. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 94(1):64–71Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moghaddam NS, et al (2016) Metallic fixation of mandibular segmental defects: graft immobilization and orofacial functional maintenance. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 4(9):1–8Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jahadakbar A et al (2016) Finite element simulation and additive manufacturing of stiffness-matched niti fixation hardware for mandibular reconstruction surgery. Bioengineering 3(4):36–56Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amerinatanzi A, et al (2016) On the advantages of superelastic Niti in Ankle Foot Orthoses. In: ASME 2016 conference on smart materials, adaptive structures and intelligent systems. American Society of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Amerinatanzi A, et al (2016) The effect of porosity type on the mechanical performance of porous niti bone implants. In: ASME 2016 conference on smart materials, adaptive structures and intelligent systems. American Society of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Excell J, Nathan S (2010) The rise of additive manufacturing. Engineer 24:677–688Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fotovvati B, et al (2018) A review on melt-pool characteristics in laser welding of metals. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2018:1–18Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elahinia M et al (2016) Fabrication of NiTi through additive manufacturing: a review. Prog Mater Sci 83:630–663Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dehghanghadikolaei A (2018) Additive manufacturing as a new technique of fabrication. J 3D Print Appl 1(1):3–4Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghoreishi R, Roohi AH, Ghadikolaei AD (2018) Analysis of the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness and cutting forces in high speed face milling of Al/SiC MMC. Mater Res Express 5(8):1–16Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dehghan Ghadikolaei A, Vahdati M (2015) Experimental study on the effect of finishing parameters on surface roughness in magneto-rheological abrasive flow finishing process. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 229(9):1517–1524Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mehrpouya M, Lavvafi H, Darafsheh A (2018) Microstructural characterization and mechanical reliability of laser-machined structures. In: Advances in laser materials processing, 2nd edn. Elsevier, pp 731–761Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fotovvati B, Namdari N, Dehghanghadikolaei A (2018) Fatigue performance of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V components: state of the art. Mater Res Express 6(1):012002Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sahasrabudhe H, Bose S, Bandyopadhyay A (2018) Laser-based additive manufacturing processes. In: Advances in laser materials processing, 2nd edn. Elsevier, pp 507–539Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saedi S et al (2018) On the effects of selective laser melting process parameters on microstructure and thermomechanical response of Ni-rich NiTi. Acta Mater 144:552–560Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pasebani S et al (2018) Effects of atomizing media and post processing on mechanical properties of 17-4 PH stainless steel manufactured via selective laser melting. Addit Manuf 22:127–137Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frazier WE (2014) Metal additive manufacturing: a review. J Mater Eng Perform 23(6):1917–1928Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kok Y et al (2018) Anisotropy and heterogeneity of microstructure and mechanical properties in metal additive manufacturing: a critical review. Mater Des 139:565–586Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bartolo P et al (2012) Biomedical production of implants by additive electro-chemical and physical processes. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 61(2):635–655Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ibrahim H et al (2018) In vitro corrosion assessment of additively manufactured porous NiTi structures for bone fixation applications. Metals 8(3):164Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ševčíková J et al (2018) On the Ni-ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys. Appl Surf Sci 427:434–443Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Qiu D, Wang A, Yin Y (2010) Characterization and corrosion behavior of hydroxyapatite/zirconia composite coating on NiTi fabricated by electrochemical deposition. Appl Surf Sci 257(5):1774–1778Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aun DP et al (2016) Enhancement of NiTi superelastic endodontic instruments by TiO 2 coating. Mater Sci Eng C 68:675–680Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huan Z et al (2013) Porous TiO2 surface formed on nickel–titanium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation: a prospective polymer-free reservoir for drug eluting stent applications. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 101(5):700–708Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang D, Bierwagen GP (2009) Sol–gel coatings on metals for corrosion protection. Prog Org Coat 64(4):327–338Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Asri R et al (2016) A review of hydroxyapatite-based coating techniques: sol–gel and electrochemical depositions on biocompatible metals. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 57:95–108Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ohtsu N, Suginishi S, Hirano M (2017) Antibacterial effect of nickel–titanium alloy owing to nickel ion release. Appl Surf Sci 405:215–219Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nieboer E, Nriagu JO (1992) Nickel and human health: current perspectives. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cisse O et al (2002) Effect of surface treatment of NiTi alloy on its corrosion behavior in Hanks’ solution. J Biomed Mater Res 61(3):339–345Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Michiardi A et al (2006) New oxidation treatment of NiTi shape memory alloys to obtain Ni-free surfaces and to improve biocompatibility. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 77(2):249–256Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Armitage DA, Parker TL, Grant DM (2003) Biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of surface-modified NiTi alloys. J Biomed Mater Res A 66(1):129–137Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cheng X, Wang Z, Yan Y (2001) Corrosion-resistant zeolite coatings by in situ crystallization. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 4(5):B23–B26Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tillmann W et al (2016) Influence of PVD-coating technology and pretreatments on residual stresses for sheet-bulk metal forming tools. Prod Eng Res Dev 10(1):17–24Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dehghanghadikolaei A, Ansary J, Ghoreishi R (2018) Sol-gel process applications: a mini-review. Proc Nat Res Soc 2:02008Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dehghanghadikolaei A (2018) Enhance its corrosion behavior of additively manufactured NiTi by micro-arc oxidation coating. University of Toledo, ToledoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Verdian M, Raeissi K, Salehi M (2010) Corrosion performance of HVOF and APS thermally sprayed NiTi intermetallic coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. CorrosSci 52(3):1052–1059Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peng F et al (2017) Sealing the pores of PEO coating with Mg–Al layered double hydroxide: enhanced corrosion resistance, cytocompatibility and drug delivery ability. Sci Rep 7(1):8167–8179Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ibrahim H et al (2017) Microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of heat-treated Mg-1.2 Zn-0.5 Ca (wt%) alloy for use as resorbable bone fixation material. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 69:203–212Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ibrahim H et al (2017) Resorbable bone fixation alloys, forming, and post-fabrication treatments. Mater Sci Eng C 70:870–888Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu J et al (2008) Alumina coating formed on medical NiTi alloy by micro-arc oxidation. Mater Lett 62(25):4112–4114Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hakimizad A et al (2018) Influence of cathodic duty cycle on the properties of tungsten containing Al2O3/TiO2 PEO nano-composite coatings. Surf Coat Technol 340:210–221Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Narayanan TS, Park IS, Lee MH (2014) Strategies to improve the corrosion resistance of microarc oxidation (MAO) coated magnesium alloys for degradable implants: prospects and challenges. Prog Mater Sci 60:1–71Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Snizhko L et al (2004) Anodic processes in plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminium in alkaline solutions. Electrochim Acta 49(13):2085–2095Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pan Y, Wang D, Chen C (2014) Effect of negative voltage on the microstructure, degradability and in vitro bioactivity of microarc oxidized coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy. Mater Lett 119:127–130Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Liu F et al (2010) Biomimetic deposition of apatite coatings on micro-arc oxidation treated biomedical NiTi alloy. Surf Coat Technol 204(20):3294–3299Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Xu J et al (2009) The corrosion resistance behavior of Al2O3 coating prepared on NiTi alloy by micro-arc oxidation. J Alloys Compd 472(1–2):276–280Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang X, Liu F, Song Y (2018) Enhanced corrosion resistance and in vitro bioactivity of NiTi alloys modified with hydroxyapatite-containing Al2O3 coatings. Surf Coat Technol 344:288–294Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vangolu Y et al (2010) Optimization of the coating parameters for micro-arc oxidation of Cp-Ti. Surf Coat Technol 205(6):1764–1773Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lu J et al (2018) Effects of voltage on microstructure and corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation ceramic coatings formed on KBM10 magnesium alloy. J Mater Eng Perform 27(1):147–154Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang H et al (2011) Preparation and properties of titanium oxide film on NiTi alloy by micro-arc oxidation. Appl Surf Sci 257(13):5576–5580Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jung Y et al (2014) Surface characteristics and biological response of titanium oxide layer formed via micro-arc oxidation in K3 PO4 and Na3 PO4 electrolytes. J Alloys Compd 586:S548–S552Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Seyfoori A et al (2012) Biodegradation behavior of micro-arc oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloys formed in two different electrolytes. Appl Surf Sci 261:92–100Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Venkateswarlu K et al (2013) Fabrication and characterization of micro-arc oxidized fluoride containing titania films on Cp Ti. Ceram Int 39(1):801–812Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Liang J, Hu L, Hao J (2007) Characterization of microarc oxidation coatings formed on AM60B magnesium alloy in silicate and phosphate electrolytes. Appl Surf Sci 253(10):4490–4496Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Venkateswarlu K et al (2013) Role of electrolyte chemistry on electronic and in vitro electrochemical properties of micro-arc oxidized titania films on Cp Ti. Electrochim Acta 105:468–480Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wang Y et al (2015) Review of the biocompatibility of micro-arc oxidation coated titanium alloys. Mater Des 85:640–652Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Xu J et al (2009) The corrosion resistance behavior of Al2O3 coating prepared on NiTi alloy by micro-arc oxidation. J Alloys Compd 472(1):276–280Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liu F et al (2009) Wear resistance of micro-arc oxidation coatings on biomedical NiTi alloy. J Alloys Compd 487(1):391–394Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jing W et al (2015) Assessment of osteoinduction using a porous hydroxyapatite coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on a new titanium alloy. Int J Surg 24:51–56Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Elahinia M et al (2018) Additive manufacturing of NiTiHf high temperature shape memory alloy. Scripta Mater 145:90–94Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Walker JM et al (2016) Process development and characterization of additively manufactured nickel–titanium shape memory parts. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 27(19):2653–2660Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Saedi S et al (2018) Shape memory response of porous NiTi shape memory alloys fabricated by selective laser melting. J Mater Sci Mater Med 29(4):40–52Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Huang X, Liu Y (2001) Effect of annealing on the transformation behavior and superelasticity of NiTi shape memory alloy. Scripta Mater 45(2):153–160Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Elahinia MH et al (2012) Manufacturing and processing of NiTi implants: a review. Prog Mater Sci 57(5):911–946Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Haberland C et al (2014) On the development of high quality NiTi shape memory and pseudoelastic parts by additive manufacturing. Smart Mater Struct 23(10):104002–1040016Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ma C et al (2017) Improving surface finish and wear resistance of additive manufactured nickel-titanium by ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification. J Mater Process Technol 249:433–440Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hatta F et al (2005) Electrical conductivity studies on PVA/PVP-KOH alkaline solid polymer blend electrolyte. Ionics 11(5–6):418–422Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhang X et al (2009) Effects of scan rate on the potentiodynamic polarization curve obtained to determine the Tafel slopes and corrosion current density. Corros Sci 51(3):581–587Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Turner BN, Gold SA (2015) A review of melt extrusion additive manufacturing processes: II. Materials, dimensional accuracy, and surface roughness. Rapid Prototyp J 21(3):250–261Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rajabi M et al (2009) Effect of rapid solidification on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-pressed Al–20Si–5Fe alloys. Mater Charact 60(11):1370–1381Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Galvele J (2005) Tafel’s law in pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion susceptibility. Corros Sci 47(12):3053–3067Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Li W et al (2018) Additive manufacturing of a new Fe–Cr–Ni alloy with gradually changing compositions with elemental powder mixes and thermodynamic calculation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(1–4):1013–1023Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cheng F, Shi P, Man H (2005) Nature of oxide layer formed on NiTi by anodic oxidation in methanol. Mater Lett 59(12):1516–1520Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xu J et al (2012) Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy. J Mater Sci Mater Med 23(12):2839–2846Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shi P, Cheng F, Man H (2007) Improvement in corrosion resistance of NiTi by anodization in acetic acid. Mater Lett 61(11–12):2385–2388Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rao KP, Ram GJ, Stucker B (2008) Improvement in corrosion resistance of friction stir welded aluminum alloys with micro arc oxidation coatings. Scripta Mater 58(11):998–1001Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li L, Achara C (2004) Chemical assisted laser machining for the minimisation of recast and heat affected zone. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53(1):175–178Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hamann S, Linton M (1969) Electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions of KCl, KOH and HCl, and the ionization of water at high shock pressures. Trans Faraday Soc 65:2186–2196Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wikipedia (2017) Potassium hydroxide. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_hydroxide
  89. 89.
    Han Y, Hong S-H, Xu K (2002) Synthesis of nanocrystalline titania films by micro-arc oxidation. Mater Lett 56(5):744–747Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Siu H, Man H (2013) Fabrication of bioactive titania coating on nitinol by plasma electrolytic oxidation. Appl Surf Sci 274:181–187Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Weng Y et al (2018) A promising orthopedic implant material with enhanced osteogenic and antibacterial activity: Al2O3-coated aluminum alloy. Appl Surface Sci 457:1025–1034Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Landolt D (1987) Fundamental aspects of electropolishing. Electrochim Acta 32(1):1–11Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    AlMangour B, Yang J-M (2016) Improving the surface quality and mechanical properties by shot-peening of 17-4 stainless steel fabricated by additive manufacturing. Mater Des 110:914–924Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bhowmik S, Naik R (2018) Selection of abrasive materials for manufacturing grinding wheels. Mater Today: Proc 5(1):2860–2864Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bakhsheshi-Rad H et al (2018) In vitro degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of TiO2-MAO/ZnHA composite coating on Mg alloy for orthopedic implants. Surf Coat Technol 334:450–460Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Amerinatanzi A et al (2018) Predicting the biodegradation of magnesium alloy implants: modeling, parameter identification, and validation. Bioengineering 5(4):105Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jeznach O et al (2018) New calcium-free Na2O–Al2O3–P2O5 bioactive glasses with potential applications in bone tissue engineering. J Am Ceram Soc 101(2):602–611Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhang Z, Wang Y, Frenzel J (2010) Ancient technology/novel nanomaterials: casting titanium carbide nanowires. CrystEngComm 12(10):2835–2840Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    AlMangour B, Grzesiak D, Yang J-M (2018) In situ formation of TiC-particle-reinforced stainless steel matrix nanocomposites during ball milling: feedstock powder preparation for selective laser melting at various energy densities. Powder Technol 326:467–478Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mehrpouya M, Gisario A, Elahinia M (2018) Laser welding of NiTi shape memory alloy: a review. Journal of Manufacturing Processes 31:162–186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentThe University of Tennessee at ChattanoogaChattanoogaUSA
  3. 3.Dynamic and Smart Systems Laboratory, Mechanical Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering DepartmentThe University of ToledoToledoUSA
  4. 4.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringThe University of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations