Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 9, pp 7211–7230 | Cite as

Effects of pre-annealing conditions on the microstructure and properties of vanadium-bearing dual-phase steels produced using continuous galvanizing line simulations

  • Y. Gong
  • J. Uusitalo
  • M. Hua
  • Y. Wu
  • A. J. DeArdoEmail author


It is well known that the fracture behavior and weldability of steel often vary inversely with the carbon content. In the case of thin sheet intended for automotive applications, this means spot weldability and tensile ductility. However, the question arises, what is the reasonable maximum strength attainable in a low-carbon dual-phase (DP) steel under the constraints of: (1) with carbon levels at 0.1 wt%, (2) with the product (UTS × % TE) > 18,000 MPa, and (3) with processing on a simulated continuous hot-dipped galvanizing line. This study has focused on experimental compositions intended to meet DP steel grade properties in excess of 780 MPa UTS. This kind of advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is an integral part of mass reduction programs for the body-in-white for the automotive industry. The family of steels investigated here is based on a low-carbon, aluminum-killed base steel containing Cr and Mo. In this study, the effects of the presence of V were studied. In addition, there were three processing variables investigated in terms of their respective effects on microstructure and mechanical properties: first, hot band coiling temperature; second, % cold reduction; and third, the thermal path through the CGL process. The thermal paths explored included both a standard galvanizing process and a new supercooling process; these were studied using a CGL simulation. This research revealed that all three variables can have a significant effect on the final microstructure and properties.



The authors should like to thank Vanitec Ltd., London (The Vanadium International Technical Committee), for financially sponsoring this work, and the United States Steel Research and Technology Center for in-kind assistance. Their generous support is greatly appreciated. Special thanks for helpful discussions are also due to Drs. Dennis Haezebrouk and Todd Link, Research and Technology Center of United States Steel Corp. and Robert Glodowski formerly of Everaz, PLC, but now associated with RGL Metallurgical, LLC.


  1. 1.
    Windmann M, Rottger A, Theisen W (2013) Phase formation at the interface between a boron alloyed steel substrate and an Al-rich coating. Surf Coat Technol 226:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schemmann L, Zaefferer S, Raabe D, Friedel Fand Mattissen D (2015) Alloying effects on microstructure formation of dual phase steels. Acta Mater 95:386–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gong Y (2015) The mechanical properties and microstructures of vanadium bearing high strength dual phase steels processed with continuous galvanizing line simulations, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krebs B, Germain L, Hazotte A, Goune M (2011) Banded structure in dual phase steels in relation with the austenite-to-ferrite transformation mechanisms. J Mater Sci 46:7026–7038. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hasegawa K, Kawamura K, Urabe T, Hosoya Y (2004) Effects of microstructure on stretch-flange-formability of 980 MPa grade cold-rolled ultra-high strength steel sheets. ISIJ Int 44:603–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davies RG (1978) The deformation behavior of a vanadium-strengthened dual phase steel. Metall Trans A 9:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Samei J, Zhou L, Kang J, Wilkinson DS (2018) Microstructural analysis of ductility and fracture in fine-grained and ultrafine-grained vanadium-added DP1300 steels. Int J Plast. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Speich GR, Schwoeble AJ, Huffman GP (1983) Tempering of Mn and Mn–Si–V dual-phase steels. Metall Trans A 14:1079–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garcia CI, Cho K, Redkin K, DeArdo AJ, Tan S, Somani M, Karjalainen P (2011) Influence of critical carbide dissolution temperature during intercritical annealing on hardenability of austenite and mechanical properties of DP-980 steels. ISIJ Int 51:969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garcia CI, Hua M, Cho K, Redkin K, DeArdo AJ (2012) Metallurgy and continuous galvanizing line processing of high-strength dual-phase steels microalloyed with niobium and vanadium. La Metallurgia Italiana-n 6:3–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang P (1984) Temper-aging of continuously annealed low carbon dual phase steel. Metall Trans A 15:73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cho K, Hua M, DeArdo AJ (2009) POSCO report, Basic Metal Processing Research Institute (BAMPRI), University of PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gong Y, Hua M, Uusitalo J and DeArdo AJ (2016) New challenges in thermomechanical processing: applications in the cold mill, In: 5th international conference on thermomechanical properties, Associazione Italiana di MetallurgiaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sente Software Ltd (2005) JMatPro user’s guide.
  15. 15.
    Fang C, Garcia CI, Choi S, DeArdo AJ (2015) A study of the batch annealing of cold-rolled HSLA steels containing niobium or titanium. Metall Mater Trans A 46:3635–3645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi SH, Jin YS (2004) Evaluation of stored energy in cold-rolled steels from EBSD data. Mater Sci Eng A 371:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Batte AD, Honeycombe RWK (1973) Precipitaion of vanadium carbide in ferrite. J Iron Steel Inst 211:284–289Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lagneborg R, Siwecki T, Zajac S, Hutchinson B (1999) The role of vanadium in microalloyed steels. Scand J Met 28:186–241Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gong Y, Liang X, Hua M, Uusitalo J, DeArdo AJ (2014) The design of microstructure for strength and toughness in low carbon high strength bainite using EBSD techniques, In: Materials science and technology conference and exhibition 2014 (MS&T’14), Materials Science and Technology (MS&T), Pittsburgh, pp 395–404Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mazaheri Y, Kermanpur Najafizadeh A, Kalashami AG (2016) Kinetics of ferrite recrystallization and austenite formation during intercritical annealing of the cold-rolled ferrite/martensite duplex structures. Metall Mater Trans A 47:1040–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gong Y, Liang X, Uusitalo J, DeArdo AJ (2016) Annealing studies of HSLA steels using EBSD. In: Holm EA et al (eds) Proceedings of the 6th international conference on recrystallization and grain growth (ReX&GG 2016), Springer, Cham, pp 99–112Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Calcagnotto M, Ponge D, Demir E, Raabe D (2010) Orientation gradients and geometrically necessary dislocations in ultrafine grained dual-phase steels studied by 2D and 3D EBSD. Mater Sci Eng A 527:2738–2746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ramazani A, Mukherjee K, Prahl U, Bleck W (2012) Transformation-induced, geometrically necessary, dislocation-based flow curve modeling of dual-phase steels: effect of grain size. Metall Mater Trans A 43:3850–3869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kundu A, Field DP (2016) Influence of plastic deformation heterogeneity on development of geometrically necessary dislocation density in dual phase steel. Mater Sci Eng A 667:435–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Speer J, Matlock D, De Cooman B, Schroth J (2003) Carbon partitioning into austenite after martensite transformation. Acta Mater 51:2611–2622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liang X, DeArdo AD (2014) A study of the influence of thermomechanical controlled processing on the microstructure of bainite in high strength plate steel. Metall Trans A 45:5173–5184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wagoner RH, Smith GR (2006) Advanced high strength steel workshop. Accessed 22 Oct 2006
  28. 28.
    Garcin T, Ueda K, Militzer M (2017) Reverse austenite transformation and grain growth in a low-carbon steel. Metall Mater Trans A 48:796–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Han J, Lee YK (2014) The effects of the heating rate on the reverse transformation mechanism and the phase stability of reverted austenite in medium Mn steels. Acta Mater 67:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Han J, Lee SJ, Jung JG, Lee YK (2014) The effects of the initial martensite microstructure on the microstructure and tensile properties of intercritically annealed Fe–9Mn–0.05C steel. Acta Mater 78:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Han J, Lee SJ, Lee CY, Lee S, Jo SY, Lee YK (2015) The size effect of initial martensite constituents on the microstructure and tensile properties of intercritically annealed Fe–9Mn–0.05C steel. Mater Sci Eng A 633:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Järvinen H, Isakov M, Nyyssönen T, Järvenpää M, Peura P (2016) The effect of initial microstructure on the final properties of press hardened 22MnB5 steels. Mater Sci Eng A 676:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anderson WA, Mehl RF (1945) Recrystallization of aluminum in terms of the rate of nucleation and the rate of growth. Trans AIME 161:140Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ivasishin OM, Shevchenko SV, Vasiliev NL, Semiatin SL (2006) A 3-D Monte-Carlo (Potts) model for recrystallization and grain growth in polycrystalline materials. Mater Sci Eng A 433:216–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goune M, Bouaziz O, Pipard JM, Maugis P (2006), La Revue de Metallurgie-CIT: 465-471Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jiang Z, Guan Z, Lian J (1993) The relationship between ductility and material parameters for dual-phase steel. J Mater Sci 28:1814–1818. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Samuel FH (1987) Tensile stress-strain analysis of dual-phase structures in an Mn–Cr–Si steel. Mater Sci Eng 92:L1–L4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Basic Metals Processing Research Institute, Swanson School of EngineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Materials Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels ResearchUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  4. 4.Sichuan University – Pittsburgh Institute (SCUPI), Zone 4 Liberal Arts Building, Jiang’an CampusSichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations