Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 4952–4969 | Cite as

Biomacromolecules in bivalve shells with crossed lamellar architecture

  • Oluwatoosin B. A. AgbajeEmail author
  • Denise E. Thomas
  • J. Gabriel Dominguez
  • Bernie V. Mclnerney
  • Matthew A. Kosnik
  • Dorrit E. Jacob
Materials for life sciences


We present an in-depth characterisation of shells from two bivalve species with crossed lamellar microstructure, namely Tridacna gigas and Fulvia tenuicostata. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy imaging reveal a fine structure of nanogranular particles that are inorganic–bioorganic nanocomposites for both shells. In F. tenuicostata, inorganic–organic components are arranged in a polycrystalline fibre-like fabric. T. gigas consists of up to four hierarchical lamellar structural orders and the second-order lamellae consist of elongated nanometre-sized laths. The inorganic matrix is intimately intergrown with the total amount of organic matter (1.8 and 1.5 wt%), and the composition of the shell macromolecules is variable between the two calcareous biominerals. This work shows for the first time the presence of polysaccharide-based compounds that could be essential for the construction of bio-organics as well as many prominent protein bands, glycoproteins and/or glycosaminoglycans of unknown sizes far above 260 kDa in bivalve shells with crossed lamellar microstructure. Chitosan (deacetylated chitin) with apparent molecular weights from 18 to 110 kDa for T. gigas and from 12 kDa till above 110 kDa for F. tenuicostata are detected in gel electrophoresis after Calcofluor staining. In each of the shell extracts, the infrared spectroscopy shows polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Our findings from two crossed lamellar shells representing two genera of Mollusca: Cardiidae indicate that chitin–protein complexes and lipid–lipoproteins are not restricted only to bivalves with nacroprismatic shells.



Fei Chi is well-appreciated for handling sugar analysis. OBAA acknowledges Dr. Nadia Suarez-Bosche for teaching him the basic technique of confocal microscopy imaging. DJ is financially supported by an ARC via a Future Fellowship and Discovery Grant (FT120100462). The work was facilitated in part by the Australian Government’s National Collaborative Research Strategy (NCRIS) and its facilities at the Australian Proteome Analysis Facility (APAF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2018_3165_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1: The online version contains supplementary information of the differences between charged to hydrophobic ratio (C/HP) and total wt% of the saccharidic composition of the soluble organic matrix (SOM) and trichloroacetic acid-phosphate buffer soluble moiety (TPM); total amino acid compositions and proportions from combining the soluble (SOM) plus the Trichloroacetic acid-Phosphate buffer soluble moieties (TPM); total monosaccharide compositions and proportions taken together from the water-soluble (SOM) plus the trichloroacetic acid–phosphate buffer soluble moieties (TPM); comparative analysis of amino acids; shell macromolecules stained with Alcian blue in SDS-electrophoresis; and peak assignment for the FTIR spectra. (DOCX 1542 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Proteome Analysis Facility (APAF)Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

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