Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 4798–4810 | Cite as

Porous carbon-coated ball-milled silicon as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

  • Joseph Nzabahimana
  • Peng Chang
  • Xianluo HuEmail author
Energy materials


Si-based anodes are promising candidates for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because they can offer the highest theoretical capacity over conventional graphite-based anodes used in commercial LIBs. However, the large volume change of Si upon cycling results in the degradation of structural integrity and electrode rapid capacity decay. These issues limit the practical applications of Si-based anodes in LIBs. Therefore, porous Si electrodes exhibiting excellent electrochemical performance can be used as anodes in high-energy density LIBs. In this work, we used commercially cheap microsized Si powders to synthesize porous Si via high-energy ball milling and etching processes. The milling time has a significant impact on the morphology, crystallinity, and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared samples. Structural and morphological analyses indicate that the high-energy ball milling greatly reduces the particle size of Si, and on the other hand increases the specific surface area. Porous Si electrodes with pore size of ~ 20 nm were successfully prepared. The 2h-milled porous Si coated with a uniform carbon layer of ~ 4.5 nm exhibits high reversible capacities of 1016.1 and 834.1 mAh g−1 at 1000 and 2000 mA g−1, respectively, over 200 cycles with high coulombic efficiency (> 99.5%), as well as stable cycling. The preparation process is simple, and can be regarded as an alternative route for synthesizing high-performance Si-based anodes for LIBs.



This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’ s Republic of China (2015AA034601), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51772116, 51472098, and 51522205), and the fund for Academic Frontier Youth Team of HUST. The authors thank the Analytical and Testing Center of HUST for XRD, SEM, and other measurements.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2018_3164_MOESM1_ESM.doc (20.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 20641 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and EngineeringHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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