Fabrication of well-isolated graphene and evaluation of thermoelectric performance of polyaniline–graphene composite film
- 70 Downloads
Camphorsulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline (PANI) and thermally reduced graphene (TRGO) composite polymer film with high thermoelectric (TE) properties were fabricated. We developed a modified Hummers method with an additional ultrasonic disruption technique to obtain well-isolated TRGO powder and well-dispersed PANI–CSA–TRGO composite polymer. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses revealed that the ultrasonic disruption process produced a well-isolated state of graphene oxide, and this state remained after a thermal reduction process. The dispersed TRGO powder was added to CSA-doped PANI composite polymer to improve its electrical conductivity (EC) properties. Addition of the well-isolated TRGO powder with high crystallinity resulted in remarkable improvement in EC without any degradation of the Seebeck coefficient (SC), which is representative of TE properties. The highest SC and EC values obtained in this study were 24 μV K−1 and 3677 S cm−1, respectively, which were observed for the 30 wt% TRGO-added PANI–CSA composite film, and the resulting power factor reached 214 μW mK−2. Well-isolated graphene with high crystallinity was fabricated using an additional ultrasonic disruption process, and well-dispersed polymer/graphene composite was also fabricated using the same sonication process. This optimized sonication process is simple but effective for improving TE properties of the composite.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- 2.Seebeck TJ (1822) Magnetische Polarisation der Metalle und Erze durch Temperatur-Differenz, Abhandlugen der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenchaften zu Berlin, pp 265–373Google Scholar
- 5.Tritt TM (2005) Thermal conductivity: theory, properties, and applications. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 6.Nolas GS, Sharp J, Goldsmid J (2013) Thermoelectrics: basic principles and new materials developments. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 8.Shirakawa H, Louis EJ, MacDiarmid AG, Chiang CK, Heeger AJ (1977) Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH)x. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 578–580Google Scholar
- 19.Shahriary L, Athawale AA (2014) Graphene oxide synthesized by using modified hummers approach. Int J Renew Energ Environ Eng 2:58–63Google Scholar
- 24.Chen T, Zeng B, Liu J, et al (2009) J Phys Conf. SerIOP PublishingGoogle Scholar
- 25.Shahriary L, Athawale AA (2014) Graphene oxide synthesized by using modified hummers approach. Int J Renew Energy Environ Eng 2:58–63Google Scholar
- 52.Marsden AJ, Papageorgiou DG, Vallés C et al (2018) Electrical percolation in graphene–polymer composites, 2D. Materials 5:032003Google Scholar