Advertisement

Porous Si3N4-based ceramics with uniform pore structure originated from single-shell hollow microspheres

  • Xiaoyan Zhang
  • Wenlong Huo
  • Yuju Lu
  • Ke Gan
  • Shu Yan
  • Jingjing Liu
  • Jinlong Yang
Ceramics
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Herein, the advantage of single-shell hollow microspheres on forming pores has been exploited to acquire porous ceramics with homogeneous microstructure, while the hollow microspheres also acted as reaction source. Dispersant reaction method has been applied to realize the perfect combination between microspheres and Si3N4 particles, which could be attributed to the repulsion between particles is weakened, particles agglomerate together and holding microspheres among them tightly. Owing to the normal distribution of hollow spheres and their single-shell structure, porous Si2N2O-Si3N4 ceramics with uniform pore distribution have been fabricated. The results show that the addition of silica hollow spheres contributes to the decrease in dielectric constant, since their porosity could be increased effectively and Si2N2O phase exhibiting low dielectric constant is generated. High-performance porous Si3N4 ceramics with porosity of 45.7% have been prepared through employing fly ash hollow microspheres, which possess flexural strength of 108.76 ± 6.25 MPa, fracture toughness of 1.78 ± 0.09 MPa m1/2 and dielectric constant of 3.53. This strategy is proved to be a convenient, eco-friendly and effective method to synthesize ideal candidates for radomes.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51572140 and 51702184) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2018M630154, 2018M630149 and 2018M631492).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This contribution has been approved by all coauthors, it has not been published before, it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else, and there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang J, Wang G, Jin F, Fang X, Song C, Guo X (2013) Fabrication of hollow spheres by dry-gel conversion and its application in the selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline. J Colloid Interface Sci 396:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ma N, Deng Y, Liu W, Li S, Xu J, Qu Y, Gan K, Sun X, Yang J (2016) A one-step synthesis of hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica spheres with radially oriented mesochannels. Chem Commun 52:3544–3547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li W, Gao R, Chen M, Zhou S, Wu L (2013) Facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic property of niobium pentoxide hollow spheres and the high optoelectronic performance of their nanofilm. J Colloid Interface Sci 411:220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li B, Yang Y, Li B, Liu Q, Zhang Y, Zhang N, Du X (2013) Low temperature synthesis of hollow La2Mo2O9 spheres by the molten salt solvent method. CrystEngComm 15:6905–6910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kang N, Park JH, Jin M, Park N, Lee SM, Kim HJ, Kim JM, Son SU (2013) Microporous organic network hollow spheres: useful templates for nanoparticulate Co3O4 hollow oxidation catalysts. J Am Chem Soc 135:19115–19118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shao Y, Jia D, Liu B (2009) Characterization of porous silicon nitride ceramics by pressureless sintering using fly ash cenosphere as a pore-forming agent. J Eur Ceram Soc 29:1529–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huo W, Zhang X, Chen Y, Lu Y, Liu J, Yan S, Wu JM, Yang J (2018) Novel mullite ceramic foams with high porosity and strength using only fly ash hollow spheres as raw material. J Eur Ceram Soc 38:2035–2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colombo P (2006) Conventional and novel processing methods for cellular ceramics. Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 364:109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang XY, Lan T, Li N, Wu JM, Huo WL, Ma N, Yang JL (2016) Porous silica ceramics with uniform pores from the in situ foaming process of silica poly-hollow microspheres in inert atmosphere. Mater Lett 182:143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun Z, Lu C, Fan J, Yuan F (2016) Porous silica ceramics with closed-cell structure prepared by inactive hollow spheres for heat insulation. J Alloy Compd 662:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geng H, Hu X, Zhou J, Xu X, Wang M, Guo A, Du H, Liu J (2016) Fabrication and compressive properties of closed-cell alumina ceramics by binding hollow alumina spheres with high-temperature binder. Ceram Int 42:16071–16076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DeFriend KA, Barron AR (2003) A simple approach to hierarchical ceramic ultrafiltration membranes. J Membr Sci 212:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qi F, Xu X, Xu J, Wang Y, Yang J, Colombo P (2014) A novel way to prepare hollow sphere ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 97:3341–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qu YN, Xu J, Su ZG, Ma N, Zhang XY, Xi XQ, Yang JL (2016) Lightweight and high-strength glass foams prepared by a novel green spheres hollowing technique. Ceram Int 42:2370–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu JM, Zhang XY, Yang JL (2014) Novel porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by aqueous gelcasting using Si3N4 poly-hollow microspheres as pore-forming agent. J Eur Ceram Soc 34:1089–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khodaei M, Meratian M, Savabi O, Razavi M (2016) The effect of pore structure on the mechanical properties of titanium scaffolds. Mater Lett 171:308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen F, Cao F, Pan H, Wang K, Shen Q, Li J, Wang S (2012) Mechanical and dielectric properties of silicon nitride ceramics with high and hierarchical porosity. Mater Design 40:562–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lurie SA, Solyaev YO, Rabinskiy LN, Polyakov PO, Sevostianov I (2017) Mechanical behavior of porous Si3N4 ceramics manufactured with 3D printing technology. J Mater Sci 53:4796–4805. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1881-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pia G, Casnedi L, Sanna U (2016) Porosity and pore size distribution influence on thermal conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia: experimental findings and model predictions. Ceram Int 42:5802–5809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bakarič T, Rojac T, Abellard AP, Malič B, Levassort F, Kuscer D (2016) Effect of pore size and porosity on piezoelectric and acoustic properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 ceramics. Adv Appl Ceram 115:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumar A, Mohanta K, Kumar D, Parkash O (2015) Low cost porous alumina with tailored gas permeability and mechanical properties prepared using rice husk and sucrose for filter applications. Micropor Mesopor Mater 213:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Su L, Wang H, Niu M, Fan X, Ma M, Shi Z, Guo SW (2018) Ultralight, recoverable and high-temperature-resistant SiC nanowire aerogel. ACS Nano 12:3103–3111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cai Y, Li X, Dong J (2014) Properties of porous Si3N4 ceramic electromagnetic wave transparent materials prepared by technique combining freeze drying and oxidation sintering. J Mater Sci 25:1949–1954.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-014-1827-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kawaguchi K, Suzuki Y, Goto T, Cho SH, Sekino T (2018) Homogeneously bulk porous calcium hexaaluminate (CaAl12O9): reactive sintering and microstructure development. Ceram Int 44:4462–4466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kandi KK, Thallapalli N, Chilakalapalli SPR (2015) Development of silicon nitride-based ceramic radomes-A review. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 12:909–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ganesh I (2011) Development of β-SiAlON based ceramics for radome applications. Process Appl Ceram 5:113–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang Y, Liu J (2009) Aluminum phosphate-mullite composites for high-temperature radome applications. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 6:190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xiao S, Mei H, Han D, Yuan W, Cheng L (2018) Porous (SiCw-Si3N4w)/(Si3N4-SiC) composite with enhanced mechanical performance fabricated by 3D printing. Ceram Int 44:14122–14127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mei H, Zhao G, Liu G, Wang Z, Cheng L (2015) Effect of pore size distribution on the mechanical performance of carbon foams reinforced by in situ grown Si3N4 whiskers. J Eur Ceram Soc 35:4431–4435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yang X, Li B, Zhang C, Wang S, Liu K, Zou C (2016) Fabrication and properties of porous silicon nitride wave-transparent ceramics via gel-casting and pressureless sintering. Mater Sci Eng A 663:174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gan K, Xu J, Zhang X, Huo W, Yang M, Qu Y, Yang J (2016) Direct coagulation casting of silicon nitride suspension via a dispersant reaction method. Ceram Int 42:4347–4353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee SJ, Baek S (2016) Effect of SiO2 content on the microstructure, mechanical and dielectric properties of Si3N4 ceramics. Ceram Int 42:9921–9925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang S, Yang Z, Duan X, Jia D, Ma F, Sun B, Zhou Y (2014) Fabrication and characterization of in situ porous Si3N4-Si2N2O-BN ceramic. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 11:832–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li D, Li B, Yang X, Guo S, Zheng Y (2018) Fabrication and properties of in situ silicon nitride nanowires reinforced porous silicon nitride (SNNWs/SN) composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 38:2671–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yang X, Li B, Zhang C, Wang S, Liu K, Zou C (2016) Design and fabrication of porous Si3N4-Si2N2O in situ composite ceramics with improved toughness. Mater Design 110:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li L, Li Q, Hong J, Sun M, Zhang J, Dong S (2018) Effect of Si3N4 solid contents on mechanical and dielectric properties of porous Si3N4 ceramics through freeze-drying. J Alloy Compd 732:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun Y, Zhao Z, Li X (2018) A novel aerogels/porous Si3N4 ceramics composite with high strength and improved thermal insulation property. Ceram Int 44:5233–5237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    You G, Bi J, Chen Y, Yin C, Wang C (2016) Effect of diatomite additive on the mechanical and dielectric properties of porous SiO2-Si3N4 composite ceramics. J Wuhan Univ Technol 31:528–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations