Preparation and characterization of composites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) and carbon nanofillers: a comparative study of exfoliated graphite nanoplates and multi-walled carbon nanotubes
In this work, the crystal structure, thermal conductivity, as well as dielectric and electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-CTFE)] filled with two different carbon nanofillers including exfoliated graphite nanoplates (xGNPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been compared. The xGNPs and the MWCNTs were well dispersed in the P(VDF-CTFE) matrix using a simple solution-blending process. The xGNPs have the ability to induce the large amount of useful polar β and γ crystal phases for P(VDF-CTFE) via the relatively strong interfacial interaction between their functional groups and the dipoles of P(VDF-CTFE), while the MWCNTs only produce the relatively low amount of β crystal phases for P(VDF-CTFE) due to their weak π-dipole interactions with P(VDF-CTFE). It was found that both the electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of xGNPs/P(VDF-CTFE) composite were better than those of MWCNTs/P(VDF-CTFE) composite. The thermal conductivities of xGNPs/P(VDF-CTFE) composites were much higher when compared with those of MWCNTs/P(VDF-CTFE) composites at the same filler content, which is probably owing to the better compatibility between xGNPs and P(VDF-CTFE). For example, the thermal conductivities of xGNPs (5 wt%)/P(VDF-CTFE) composite and MWCNTs (5 wt%)/P(VDF-CTFE) composite were 0.83 W/mK and 0.43 W/mK, respectively.
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Guangdong Province Natural Science Foundation, China (Nos. 2017A030313268 and 2017A030313080), the Guangdong Province Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scientists, China (No. S2013050014139), and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (1-ZVGH, G-YBLM, and G-YBPN).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.
- 3.Zhang K, Li G, Feng L, Wang N, Guo J, Sun K, Yu K, Zeng J, Li T, Guo Z, Wang M (2017) Ultralow percolation threshold and enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding in poly(L-lactide)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites with electrically conductive segregated networks. J Mater Chem C 36:9359–9369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Shi YD, Li J, Tan YJ, Chen YF, Wang M, Wu H, Guo S (2018) Low magnetic field-induced alignment of nickel particles in segregated poly(L-lactide)/poly(ε-caprolactone)/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites: towards remarkable and tunable conductive anisotropy. Chem Eng J 347:472–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Liu YF, Feng LM, Chen YF, Shi YD, Chen XD, Wang M (2018) Segregated polypropylene/cross-linked poly(ethylene-co-1-octene)/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with low percolation threshold and dominated negative temperature coefficient effect: towards electromagnetic interference shielding and thermistors. Compos Sci Technol 159:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Zhong SL, Zhou ZY, Zhang K, Shi YD, Chen YF, Oigiviy LF, Zeng JB, Wang M (2016) Formation of thermally conductive networks in isotactic polypropylene/hexagonal boron nitride composites via “bridge effect” of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets. RSC Adv 6:98571–98580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Zhang K, Yu HO, Yu KX, Gao Y, Wang M, Li J, Guo SY (2018) A facile approach to constructing efficiently segregated conductive networks in poly(lactic acid)/silver nanocomposites via silver plating on microfibers for electromagnetic interference shielding. Compos Sci Technol 156:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Kuester S, Merlini C, Barra GMO, Ferreira JC, Lucas A, de Souza AC (2016) Processing and characterization of conductive composites based on poly(styrene-b-ethylene-ran-butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS) and carbon additives: a comparative study of expanded graphite and carbon black. Compos Part B Eng 84:236–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Huang CL, Wang YJ, Fan YC, Hung CL, Liu YC (2017) The effect of geometric factor of carbon nanofillers on the electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) composites: a comparative study. J Mater Sci 52:2560–2580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0549-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Zhang SH, Zhang NY, Huang C, Ren KL, Zhang QM (2005) Microstructure and electromechanical properties of carbon nanotube/poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) composites. Adv Mater 17:1801–1897Google Scholar
- 32.Tamang A, Ghosh KS, Garain S, Alam MM, Haeberle J, Henkel K (2015) DNA-assisted β phase nucleation and alignment of molecular dipoles in PVDF Film: a realization of self-Poled bioinspired flexible polymer nanogenerator for portable electronic devices. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:16143–16147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Ray SS (2013) Rheological properties of environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites (EFPNCs) using biodegradable polymer matrices and clay/carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcements. In: Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites. Woodhead Publishing, pp 450–464. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857097828.2.450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Xie LY, Huang XY, Wu C, Jiang PK (2011) Core-shell structured poly(methyl methacrylate)/BaTiO3 nanocomposites prepared by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization: a route to high dielectric constant materials with the inherent low loss of the base polymer. J Mater Chem 21:5897–5906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Gangulia S, Roya AK, Anderson DP (2010) Thermal conductivity of platelet-filled polymer composites. J Am Ceram Soc 85:851–857Google Scholar
- 46.Zhang S, Ke YC, Cao XY, Ma YM, Wang FS (2012) Effect of Al2O3 fibers on the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of high density polyethylene with the absence and presence of compatibilizer. J Appl Polym Sci 124:4874–4881Google Scholar