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Polyaniline-based conducting hydrogels

  • Radha D. Pyarasani
  • Tippabattini Jayaramudu
  • Amalraj John
Review

Abstract

Conducting polymer hydrogels (CPHs) have been identified as a promising class of polymeric material for a wide range of applications such as biomedical, energy, environmental, health and agricultural domains. CPHs have received immense consideration because of their biocompatibility, hydrophilic properties, biodegradable nature, electroconductivity, ample resources and ease of preparation. Flexible nature of CPHs is considered as a potential candidate for some innovative technologies like flexible electronics especially flexible supercapacitors and solar cells, and their biocompatibility nature plays a key role in biomedical applications such as bioconductors, biosensors, implantable medical devices, electro-stimulated drug delivery systems, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering. When it comes to the matter of conductivity, among conducting polymers, polyaniline has been studied extensively for its stability, variable electrical conductivity, inexpensive raw material and better compatibility with other biopolymers. This review focuses on recent developments in polyaniline-based conducting hydrogels and their applications in biomedical and energy applications. Different strategies of synthesis, thermal, structural, electrochemical behavior of CPHs and their further opportunities and challenges are also discussed here.

Abbreviations

3D

Three dimension

APS

Ammonium persulfate

ATMP

Aminotrimethylene phosphonic acid

CA125

Carcinoma antigen-125

CMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose

CP

Conducting polymer

CPHs

Conducting polymeric hydrogels

CTAB

Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide

CV

Cyclic voltammetry

DBS

1,3:2,4-Di-O-benzylidene-d-sorbitol

EIS

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

EMI

Electromagnetic interference shielding

ESD

Electrostatic discharge

FB

Fmoc–phenylalanine

FS

Fluorescent sodium

FT

Freeze–thaw

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared

GCD

Galvanostatic charge/discharge

GDE

Glycerol diglycidyl ether

GelMA

Gelatin methacrylate

Gg

Gum ghatti

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

IA

Itaconic acid

KPS

Potassium persulfate

LED

Light-emitting diodes

MB

Methylene blue

MFH

Multifunctional hydrogel

MG

Malachite green

MWCNT

Multiwall carbon nanotube

NaPPDT

Poly(sodium-3-sulfo-p-phenyleneterephthalamide)

NDC

N-doped nanocarbon

PAA

Polyacrylic acid

PAM

Polyacrylamide

PAMPA

Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)

PANI

Polyaniline

PCL

Poly(ɛ-caprolactone)

PEDOT

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PEGda

Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate

PHEMA

Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

PNIPAM

Poly(isopropyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)

PPDA

Polyphenylenediamine

PPY

Polypyrrole

PSS

Poly(styrene sulfonate)

PTH

Polythiophene

PTHI

Polythreonine

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

PVP

Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)

RGO

Reduced graphene oxide

RGOHG

Reduced graphene oxide hydrogel

SC

Supercapacitor

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SWV

Squarewave voltammetry

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge PIEI (Quimico-Bio) and Proyecto de Investigacion enlace FONDECYT (No. 300061) Universidad de Talca. PR wishes to acknowledge VRIP, Universidad Catolica del Maule. TJ wishes to acknowledge FONDECYT Postdoctoral Project (No. 3170272).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vicerrectoría de Investigación y PostgradoUniversidad Catolica del MauleTalcaChile
  2. 2.Laboratory of Materials Science, Instituto de Química de Recursos NaturalesUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile

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