Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 705–718 | Cite as

X-ray methods to observe and quantify adhesive penetration into wood

  • Joseph E. Jakes
  • Charles R. Frihart
  • Christopher G. Hunt
  • Daniel J. Yelle
  • Nayomi Z. Plaza
  • Linda Lorenz
  • Warren Grigsby
  • Daniel J. Ching
  • Fred Kamke
  • Sophie-Charlotte Gleber
  • Stefan Vogt
  • Xianghui Xiao
Materials for life sciences
  • 214 Downloads

Abstract

To accelerate development of new and improved wood adhesives for engineered wood products, the optimal adhesive penetration into wood needs to be better understood for specific products and applications. Adhesive penetration includes both flow of adhesives into wood micron-scale voids and infiltration into the polymer components of the wood cell wall layers. In this work, X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) were used to study adhesive flow and infiltration. Model wood–adhesive bondlines were made using loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) latewood substrates and bromine-substituted phenol formaldehyde (BrPF) resins with different weight-average molecular weights (MW). The Br substitution facilitated both qualitative and quantitative observations using XCT and XFM. The BrPF resin flow into wood was visualized using XCT volume reconstructions and quantified by calculating the weighted penetration (WP). Examination of the shape of the cured BrPF–air interface in longitudinal tracheid lumina revealed that capillary action often played a role in BrPF flow. XFM mapping revealed the pathways of BrPF infiltration into the wood cell walls, and the results were used to calculate BrPF cell wall weight percent gain (WPGCW) in individual wood cell walls. Both WP and WPGCW decreased with increasing BrPF MW. Additionally, the middle lamella had higher WPGCW than its neighboring secondary cell walls, and within a given bondline the WPGCW decreased with increasing distance of the cell from the bondline. The results provide new insights that are needed in the development of improved models to understand and predict wood–adhesive bondline performance.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

Compliance with the ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2018_2783_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (340 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 340 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM2_ESM.avi (4.9 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (AVI 5045 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM3_ESM.avi (4.6 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (AVI 4736 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM4_ESM.avi (3.5 mb)
Supplementary material 4 (AVI 3619 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM5_ESM.avi (4.1 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (AVI 4230 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM6_ESM.avi (3 mb)
Supplementary material 6 (AVI 3075 kb)
10853_2018_2783_MOESM7_ESM.avi (3.5 mb)
Supplementary material 7 (AVI 3630 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    ASTM International (2007) ASTM adhesives standards, vol 1506. ASTM International, ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frihart CR (2005) Wood adhesion and adhesives. In: Rowell RM (ed) Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp 215–278Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kamke FA, Lee JN (2007) Adhesive penetration in wood—a review. Wood Fiber Sci 39:205–220Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marra AA (1992) Technology of wood bonding: principles in practice. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frihart CR (2009) Adhesive groups and how they relate to the durability of bonded wood. J Adhes Sci Technol 23:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nearn W (1965) Wood-adhesive interface relations. Off Dig Fed Soc Paint Technol 37:720–733Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nearn WT (1974) Application of the ultrastructure concept in industrial wood products research. Off Dig Fed Soc Paint Technol 6:285–293Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wimmer R, Kläusler O, Niemz P (2013) Water sorption mechanisms of commercial wood adhesive films. Wood Sci Technol 47:763–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glass SV, Zelinka SL (2010) Moisture relations and physical properties of wood. In: Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material, Centennial edn. General technical report FPL, GTR-190. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, pp 4.1–4.19Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Konnerth J, Gindl W (2006) Mechanical characterisation of wood-adhesive interphase cell walls by nanoindentation. Holzforschung 60:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Modzel G, Kamke FA, De Carlo F (2011) Comparative analysis of a wood: adhesive bondline. Wood Sci Technol 45:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gardner DJ, Blumentritt M, Wang L, Yildirim N (2015) Adhesion theories in wood adhesive bonding. In: Mittal KL (ed) Progress in adhesion and adhesives. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 125–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frazier CE, Ni J (1998) On the occurrence of network interpenetration in the wood–isocyanate adhesive interphase. Int J Adhes Adhes 18:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gindl W, Dessipri E, Wimmer R (2002) Using UV-microscopy to study diffusion of melamine–urea–formaldehyde resin in cell walls of spruce wood. Holzforschung 56:103–107Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Furuno T, Imamura Y, Kajita H (2004) The modification of wood by treatment with low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin: a properties enhancement with neutralized phenolic-resin and resin penetration into wood cell walls. Wood Sci Technol 37:349–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Konnerth J, Harper D, Lee S-H et al (2008) Adhesive penetration of wood cell walls investigated by scanning thermal microscopy (SThM). Holzforschung 62:91–98Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu D, Zhang Y, Zhou H et al (2016) Characterization of adhesive penetration in wood bond by means of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM). Holzforschung 70:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xing C, Riedl B, Cloutier A, Shaler SM (2005) Characterization of urea–formaldehyde resin penetration into medium density fiberboard fibers. Wood Sci Technol 39:374–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cyr P-L, Riedl B, Wang X-M (2008) Investigation of urea–melamine–formaldehyde (UMF) resin penetration in medium-density fiberboard (MDF) by high resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy. Holz Roh Werkst 66:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hunt CE, Jakes JE, Grigsby W (2010) Evaluation of adhesive penetration of wood fibre by nanoindentation and microscopy. In: BIOCOMP 2010; 10th Pacific Rim bio-based composites symposium, pp 216–226Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grigsby WJ, Thumm A (2012) Resin and wax distribution and mobility during medium density fibreboard manufacture. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 70:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang X, Deng Y, Li Y et al (2016) In situ identification of the molecular-scale interactions of phenol-formaldehyde resin and wood cell walls using infrared nanospectroscopy. RSC Adv 6:76318–76324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jakes JE, Gleber S-C, Vogt S et al (2013) New synchrotron-based technique to map adhesive infiltration in wood cell walls. In: Proceedings of 2013 annual meeting of the Adhesion Society, Daytona Beach Ocean, Resort Daytona Beach, FL, Daytona Beach, FL, USA, 3–6 Mar 2013, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jakes JE, Hunt CG, Yelle DJ et al (2015) Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with nanoindentation to study molecular-scale interactions of phenol-formaldehyde in wood cell walls. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:6584–6589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Plaza NZ (2017) Neutron scattering studies of nano-scale wood–water interactions. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-MadisonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Plaza NZ, Frihart CR, Hunt CG et al (2017) Small angle neutron scattering as a new tool to study moisture-induced swelling in the nanostructure of chemically modified wood cell walls. In: Hunt CG, Smith GD, Yan N (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on wood adhesives 2017. Forest Products Society, Peachtree Corners, GAGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Evans PD, Morrison O, Senden TJ et al (2010) Visualization and numerical analysis of adhesive distribution in particleboard using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Int J Adhes Adhes 30:754–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paris JL, Kamke FA (2015) Quantitative wood-adhesive penetration with X-ray computed tomography. Int J Adhes Adhes 61:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hansen CM, Bjorkman A (1998) Ultrastructure of wood from a solubility parameter point of view. Holzforschung 52:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mantanis GI, Young RA, Rowell RM (1994) Swelling of wood. Part II. Swelling in organic liquids. Holzforschung 48:480–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gürsoy D, De CF, Xiao X (2014) TomoPy: a framework for the analysis of synchrotron tomographic data. J Synchrotron Radiat 21:118–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McKinley PE, Ching DJ, Kamke FA et al (2016) Micro X-ray computed tomography of adhesive bonds in wood. Wood Fiber Sci 48:2–16Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schmid B, Schindelin J, Cardona A et al (2010) A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ. BMC Bioinformatics 11:274.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-11-274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E et al (2012) Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nat Methods 9:676–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vogt S (2003) MAPS: a set of software tools for analysis and visualization of 3D X-ray fluorescence data sets. J Phys IV 104:635–638Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paris JL, Kamke FA, Mbachu R, Gibson SK (2014) Phenol formaldehyde adhesives formulated for advanced X-ray imaging in wood-composite bondlines. J Mater Sci 49:580–591.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7738-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paris JL, Kamke FA, Xiao X (2015) X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: attenuation and phase-contrast effects. Wood Sci Technol 49:1185–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunky M (2003) Adhesives in the wood industry. In: Pizzi A, Mittal K (eds) Handbook of adhesive technology, revised and expanded, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 887–956Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hass P, Wittel FK, Mendoza M et al (2012) Adhesive penetration in beech wood: experiments. Wood Sci Technol 46:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sernek M, Resnik J, Kamke FA (1999) Penetration of liquid urea–formaldehyde adhesive into beech wood. Wood Fiber Sci 31:41–48Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tarkow H, Feist WC, Southerland CF (1966) Interaction of wood with polymeric materials—penetration versus molecular size. For Prod J 16:61–65Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thybring EE, Kymäläinen M, Rautkari L (2018) Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated. Wood Sci Technol 52:297–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hunt C, O’Dell J, Jakes J et al (2015) Wood as polar size exclusion chromatography media: implications to adhesive performance. For Prod J 65:9–14Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gabrielli CP, Kamke FA (2009) Phenol-formaldehyde impregnation of densified wood for improved dimensional stability. Wood Sci Technol 44:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stamm AJ, Seborg RM (1936) Minimizing wood shrinkage and swelling. Ind Eng Chem 28:1164–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rowell RM, Petterson R, Tshabalala MA (2013) Cell wall chemistry. In: Rowell RM (ed) Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp 33–72Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Laborie M-PG, Salmen L, Frazier CE (2006) A morphological study of the wood/phenol-formaldehyde adhesive interphase. J Adhes Sci Technol 20:729–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Norimoto M (2001) Chemical modification of wood. In: Hon DN-S, Shirashi N (eds) Wood and cellulose chemistry, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 573–598Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jakes JE, Frihart CR, Hunt CG et al (2017) Integrating multi-scale studies of adhesive penetration into wood. In: Hunt CG, Smith GD, Yan N (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on wood adhesives 2017. Forest Products Society, Peachtree Corners, GAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Biopolymers Science and EngineeringForest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest ServiceMadisonUSA
  2. 2.ScionRotoruaNew Zealand
  3. 3.Wood Science and EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Advanced Photon SourceArgonne National LaboratoryLemontUSA

Personalised recommendations