Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 13, pp 9521–9532 | Cite as

Designed fabrication of hierarchical porous carbon nanotubes/graphene/carbon nanofibers composites with enhanced capacitive desalination properties

Composites
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Carbonaceous materials, one of the most important electrode materials for sea water desalination, have attracted tremendous attention. Herein, we develop a facile and effective two-step strategy to fabricate hierarchical porous carbon nanotubes/graphene/carbon nanofibers (CNTs/G/CNFs) composites for capacitive desalination application. Graphite oxide (GO), Ni2+, and Co2+ are introduced into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by electrospinning method. During the annealing process, the PAN nanofibers are carbonized into CNFs felt, while the CNTs grow in situ on the surface of CNFs and graphite oxide are reduced into graphene simultaneously. Benefiting from the unique hierarchical porous structure, the as-prepared CNTs/G/CNFs composites have a large specific surface area of 223.9 m2 g−1 and excellent electrical conductivity. The maximum salt capacity of the composites can reach to 36.0 mg g−1, and the adsorbing capability maintains a large retention of 96.9% after five cycles. Moreover, the effective deionization time of the CNTs/G/CNFs composites lasts more than 30 min, much better than the commercial carbon fibers (C-CFs) and graphene/carbon nanofibers (G/CNFs) composites. Results suggest that the designed hierarchical porous CNTs/G/CNFs architecture could enhance the capacitive desalination properties of electrode materials. And the possible adsorption mechanism of the novel electrode materials is proposed as well.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Taishan Scholar Project (No. ts201511080) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51302049, 51372052 and 51672059). Project of Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT.NSRIF.2015106, HIT. NSRIF. 2014129) and Technology Development Program at Weihai (2013DXGJ12) are also acknowledged.

Author contributions

The manuscript was written through contributions of all authors. C.Z., Y.H. and G.W. conceived and designed the experiments; C.Z. and Y.H. performed the experiments; Y.H. and T.Z. analyzed the data; H.W. contributed analysis tools and relevant analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Porada S, Zhao R, Van Der Wal A, Presser V, Biesheuvel PM (2013) Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization. Prog Mater Sci 58:1388–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xiang X, Zou S, He Z (2017) Energy consumption of water recovery from wastewater in a submerged forward osmosis system using commercial liquid fertilizer as a draw solute. Sep Purif Technol 174:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohammadi T, Kaviani A (2003) Water shortage and seawater desalination by electrodialysis. Desalination 158:267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Karaghouli A, Kazmerski LL (2013) Energy consumption and water production cost of conventional and renewable-energy-powered desalination processes. Renew Sust Energ Rev 24:343–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choi S-H (2016) On the brine re-utilization of a multi-stage flashing (MSF) desalination plant. Desalination 398:64–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang F, Xu S, Feng D, Chen S, Du R, Su C, Shen B (2017) A low-temperature multi-effect desalination system powered by the cooling water of a diesel engine. Desalination 404:112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reddy KS, Sharon H (2016) Active multi-effect vertical solar still: mathematical modeling, performance investigation and enviro-economic analyses. Desalination 395:99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han D, He WF, Yue C, Pu WH (2017) Study on desalination of zero-emission system based on mechanical vapor compression. Appl Energ 185:1490–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swaminathan J, Nayar KG, Lienhard VJH (2016) Mechanical vapor compression-membrane distillation hybrids for reduced specific energy consumption. Desalin Water Treat 57:26507–26517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fujiwara M (2017) Water desalination using visible light by disperse red 1 modified PTFE membrane. Desalination 404:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Demir ME, Dincer I (2017) Development of an integrated hybrid solar thermal power system with thermoelectric generator for desalination 404 and power production. Desalination 404:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khamis I, El-Emam RS (2016) IAEA coordinated research activity on nuclear desalination: the quest for new technologies and techno-economic assessment. Desalination 394:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Faibish RS, Konishi T (2003) Nuclear desalination: a viable option for producing freshwater. Desalination 157:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang T, Yu S, L-a Hou (2017) Impacts of HPAM molecular weights on desalination performance of ion exchange membranes and fouling mechanism. Desalination 404:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Venugopal K, Dharmalingam S (2016) Synthetic salt water desalination by electrodialysis using reinforced ion exchange membranes for acid–base production. Int J Plast Technol 20:315–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Du Y, Liu Y, Zhang S, Xu Y (2016) Optimization of seawater reverse osmosis desalination networks with permeate split design considering boron removal. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:12860–12879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Imran B, Khan SJ, Qazi IA, Arshad M (2016) Removal and recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from industrial wastewater by two-stage diffusion dialysis (DD) and electrodialysis (ED) processes. Desalin Water Treat 57:7926–7932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xie M, Gray SR (2016) Gypsum scaling in forward osmosis: role of membrane surface chemistry. J Membrane Sci 513:250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson MA, Cudero AL, Palma J (2010) Capacitive deionization as an electrochemical means of saving energy and delivering clean water. Comparison to present desalination practices: will it compete? Electrochim Acta 55:3845–3856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oren Y (2008) Review: capacitive deionization (CDI) for desalination and water treatment—past, present and future. Desalination 228:10–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee J-H, Ahn H-J, Cho D, Youn J-I, Kim Y-J, Oh H-J (2015) Effect of surface modification of carbon felts on capacitive deionization for desalination. Carbon Lett 16:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chung S, Kang H, Ocon JD, Lee JK, Lee J (2015) Enhanced electrical and mass transfer characteristics of acid-treated carbon nanotubes for capacitive deionization. Curr Appl Phys 15:1539–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kiyohara K, Shioyama H, Sugino T, Asaka K (2012) Phase transition in porous electrodes. II. Effect of asymmetry in the ion size. J Chem Phys 136:094701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gao Y, Pan L, Li H, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Chen Y, Sun Z (2009) Electrosorption behavior of cations with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres composite film electrodes. Thin Solid Films 517:1616–1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rasines G, Lavela P, Macías C, Zafra MC, Tirado JL, Ania CO (2015) Mesoporous carbon black-aerogel composites with optimized properties for the electro-assisted removal of sodium chloride from brackish water. J Electroanal Chem 741:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ma C-Y, Huang S-C, Chou P-H, Den W, Hou C-H (2016) Application of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-chitosan composite as an electrode in the electrosorption process for water purification. Chemosphere 146:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang G, Dong Q, Wu T, Zhan F, Zhou M, Qiu J (2016) Ultrasound-assisted preparation of electrospun carbon fiber/graphene electrodes for capacitive deionization: importance and unique role of electrical conductivity. Carbon 103:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tuan TN, Chung S, Lee JK, Lee J (2015) Improvement of water softening efficiency in capacitive deionization by ultra purification process of reduced graphene oxide. Curr Appl Phys 15:1397–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tsai Y-C, R-A Doong (2016) Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbons and silver nanoparticles as asymmetric electrodes for highly efficient capacitive deionization. Desalination 398:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oschatz M, Boukhalfa S, Nickel W, Hofmann JP, Fischer C, Yushin G, Kaskel S (2017) Carbide-derived carbon aerogels with tunable pore structure as versatile electrode material in high power supercapacitors. Carbon 113:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pan H, Yang J, Wang S, Xiong Z, Cai W, Liu J (2015) Facile fabrication of porous carbon nanofibers by electrospun PAN/dimethyl sulfone for capacitive deionization. J Mater Chem A 3:13827–13834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Im JS, Kim JG, Lee Y-S (2014) Effects of pore structure on the high-performance capacitive deionization using chemically activated carbon nanofibers. J Nanosci Nanotechno 14:2268–2273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee D, Choe J, Nam S, Lim JW, Choi I, Lee DG (2017) Development of non-woven carbon felt composite bipolar plates using the soft layer method. Compos Struct 160:976–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang G, Pan C, Wang L, Dong Q, Yu C, Zhao Z, Qiu J (2012) Activated carbon nanofiber webs made by electrospinning for capacitive deionization. Electrochim Acta 69:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xu Y, Zondlo JW, Finklea HO, Brennsteiner A (2000) Electrosorption of uranium on carbon fibers as a means of environmental remediation. Fuel Process Technol 68:189–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li Y, Quan J, Branford-White C, Williams GR, Wu J-X, Zhu L-M (2012) Electrospun polyacrylonitrile-glycopolymer nanofibrous membranes for enzyme immobilization. J Mol Catal B-Enzym 76:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rao M, Geng X, Li X, Hu S, Li W (2012) Lithium-sulfur cell with combining carbon nanofibers–sulfur cathode and gel polymer electrolyte. J Power Sources 212:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nikolic-Jaric M, Romanuik SF, Ferrier GA, Bridges GE, Butler M, Sunley K, Thomson DJ, Freeman MR (2009) Microwave frequency sensor for detection of biological cells in microfluidic channels. Biomicrofluidics 3:034103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang H, Zhang Y, Shao H, Hu X (2005) Electrospun ultra-fine silk fibroin fibers from aqueous solutions. J Mater Sci 40:5359–5363.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-005-4332-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anis SF, Lalia BS, Mostafa AO, Hashaikeh R (2017) Electrospun nickel–tungsten oxide composite fibers as active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. J Mater Sci 52:7269–7281.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-0964-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guo Z, Huang J, Xue Z, Wang X (2016) Electrospun graphene oxide/carbon composite nanofibers with well-developed mesoporous structure and their adsorption performance for benzene and butanone. Chem Eng J 306:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jindal A, Gautam DK, Basu S (2016) Electrocatalytic activity of electrospun carbon nitride-polyacrylonitrile nanofiber towards oxygen reduction reactions. J Electroanal Chem 775:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim C, Park S-H, Lee W-J, Yang K-S (2004) Characteristics of supercapacitor electrodes of PBI-based carbon nanofiber web prepared by electrospinning. Electrochim Acta 50:877–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kwon OS, Kim T, Lee JS, Park SJ, Park H-W, Kang M, Lee JE, Jang J, Yoon H (2013) Fabrication of graphene sheets intercalated with manganese oxide/carbon nanofibers: toward high-capacity energy storage. Small 9:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moyseowicz A, Śliwak A, Gryglewicz G (2016) Influence of structural and textural parameters of carbon nanofibers on their capacitive behavior. J Mater Sci 51:3431–3439.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9660-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Trautwein G, Plaza-Recobert M, Alcañiz-Monge J (2016) Unusual pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibres behaviour against their activation with CO2: carbonization effect. Adsorption 22:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Y-q Zhao, C-g Wang, Y-j Bai, G-w Chen, Jing M, Zhu B (2009) Property changes of powdery polyacrylonitrile synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization during heat-treatment process under air atmosphere. J Colloid Interfe Sci 329:48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jing M, C-g Wang, Wang Q, Y-j Bai, Zhu B (2007) Chemical structure evolution and mechanism during pre-carbonization of PAN-based stabilized fiber in the temperature range of 350–600 °C. Polym Degrad Stab 92:1737–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hameed N, Sharp J, Nunna S, Creighton C, Magniez K, Jyotishkumar P, Salim NV, Fox B (2016) Structural transformation of polyacrylonitrile fibers during stabilization and low temperature carbonization. Polym Degrad Stab 128:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Piper DM, Yersak TA, Son S-B, Kim SC, Kang CS, Oh KH, Ban C, Dillon AC, Lee S-H (2013) Conformal coatings of cyclized-pan for mechanically resilient si nano-composite anodes. Adv Energy Mater 3:697–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G, Saito R, Jorio A (2005) Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes. Phys Rep 409:47–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Valderrama G, Kiennemann A, Goldwasser MR (2010) La–Sr–Ni–Co–O based perovskite-type solid solutions as catalyst precursors in the CO2 reforming of methane. J Power Sources 195:1765–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhang T, Zhao H, Huang XX, Wen G (2016) Li-ion doped graphene/carbon nanofiber porous architectures for electrochemical capacitive desalination. Desalination 379:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang J, Zou H, Li Y, Xie H, Hu N, Wang L, Shi J (2014) Effect of different element doping on the structure and magnetic properties of composite crystal Sr14(Cu1–xMx)24O41 (M=Zn, Ni, Co). Phys B 441:6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dong W, Weiwei Z, Yong Z, Yali W, Gangan W, Kun Y, Guangwu W (2016) A novel one-step strategy toward ZnMn2O4/N-doped graphene nanosheets with robust chemical interaction for superior lithium storage. Nanotechnology 27:045405CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyWeihaiChina
  2. 2.School of Marine ScienceHarbin Institute of TechnologyWeihaiChina
  3. 3.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina
  4. 4.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  5. 5.Shandong Industrial Ceramics Research and Design Institute Co., Ltd.ZiboChina

Personalised recommendations