Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 2631–2637 | Cite as

Interfacial monolayer graphene growth on arbitrary substrate by nickel-assisted ion implantation

  • Da ChenEmail author
  • Qinglei Guo
  • Siwei Yang
  • Zhiduo Liu
  • Xiaohu Zheng
  • Nan Zhang
  • Anli Xu
  • Bei Wang
  • Gang WangEmail author
  • Guqiao Ding
Electronic materials


Direct synthesis of monolayer graphene on arbitrary substrate (such as SiO2, Al2O3, glass, and Si3N4) is demonstrated through a universal and controllable approach, i.e., carbon ion implantation technique. By tuning the implantation energy to precisely implant carbon ions into the thin Ni film, which is pre-deposited on the objective substrate, followed by post-annealing and fast-cooling processes, monolayer graphene films are directly synthesized on the arbitrary objective substrate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, STM, and TEM are cooperatively utilized to verify that the synthesized graphene is monolayer with high quality. Moreover, field-effect transistors are fabricated with the directly synthesized monolayer graphene on SiO2/Si substrate to reveal the corresponding electrical properties. This study provides an avenue for direct growth of graphene on arbitrary substrate, which offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions, especially the experimental atmosphere. In addition, involving the ion implantation technique may pave the way for wafer-scale graphene synthesis, thus benefitting the application of graphene in micro-/nano-electronic field.



We acknowledge the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (Nos. 11704204, 61604084 and 51602056), General Financial Grant from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2015M581523), K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, Open Fund Key Disciplines in Colleges and Universities of Zhejiang (008-421600972), Foundation of Zhejiang Educational Commission (No. Y201635454) and Project funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (BX201700271). Q. L. Guo acknowledges the support under the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program by the Office of China Postdoctoral Council.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, Faculty of ScienceNingbo UniversityNingboChina
  2. 2.Department of Materials ScienceFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for InformaticsShanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information TechnologyShanghaiChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of SemiconductorsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.International Center for Quantum Materials, School of PhysicsPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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