Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 19, pp 11620–11629 | Cite as

Electrical and mechanical properties of poly(dopamine)-modified copper/reduced graphene oxide composites

  • Zhengfeng Jia
  • Haoqi Li
  • Yao Zhao
  • Laszlo Frazer
  • Bosen Qian
  • Eric Borguet
  • Fei Ren
  • Dmitriy A. Dikin
Energy materials

Abstract

Surface oxidation is frequently encountered in powder metallurgy of metals and alloys, and it leads to a reduction in their electrical conductivities. Therefore, it is highly desired to remove the naturally occurring oxide layer from the particles surface and to prevent its subsequent formation. A new approach was proposed in this study, where copper particles were mixed with graphene oxide (GO) sheets in an aqueous solution containing dopamine (DA) molecules. It was expected that polymerization of the DA molecules on the surface of the copper particle could promote both a reduction of surface oxide layer and the adhesion of GO sheets to the particles surface. The powder system was then washed, heat-treated in inert atmosphere and compressed at room temperature to form compacts. Electron microscopy revealed nearly ideal dispersion of GO sheets within the copper matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a shift from Cu2+ to Cu+ and metallic copper in the coated and heat-treated samples, and Raman spectroscopy pointed to the increased amount of sp 2 carbon as a result of the heat treatment. All DA/GO-coated and heat-treated compacts exhibited significantly higher electrical conductivity than those that have been made from pure copper powder or were not been heat-treated. Also, indentation measurements showed an increase in microhardness in samples with the shortest, 10 min, coating time and heat-treated at the highest, 600 °C, temperature.

Notes

Acknowledgements

ZFJ thanks the support of Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of China (No. J15LA60) and Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, China (LSL-1504). FR would like to acknowledge financial support from the Temple University faculty startup fund. The SEM imaging was performed in the CoE-NIC facility at Temple University, which is based on DoD DURIP Award N0014-12-1-0777 from the Office of Naval Research and is sponsored by the College of Engineering. EB and LF acknowledge support as part of the Center for the Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award#DE-SC0012575.

Supplementary material

10853_2017_1307_MOESM1_ESM.docx (9.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 9795 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Weiss NO, Zhou HL, Liao L, Liu Y, Jiang S, Huang Y, Duan XF (2012) Graphene: an emerging electronic material. Adv Mater 24:5782–5825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Geim AK (2009) Graphene, status and prospects. Science 324:1530–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whitby RLD (2014) Chemical control of graphene architecture: tailoring shape and properties. ACS Nano 8:9733–9754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang X, Yin Z, Wu S, Qi X, He Q, Zhang Q, Yan Q, Boey F, Zhang H (2011) Graphene-based materials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications. Small 7:1876–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jia Z, Chen T, Wang J, Ni J, Li H, Shao X (2015) Synthesis, characterization and tribological properties of Cu/reduced graphene oxide composites. Tribol Int 88:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hwang J, Yoon T, Jin S, Lee J, Kim T, Hong S, Jeon S (2013) Enhanced mechanical properties of graphene/copper nanocomposites using a molecular-level mixing process. Adv Mater 25:6724–6729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma D, Wu P (2016) Improved microstructure and mechanical properties for Sn58Bi0.7Zn solder joint by addition of graphene nanosheets. J Alloy Compd 671:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isaacs RA, Zhu H, Preston C, Mansour A, LeMieux M, Zavalij PY, Iftekhar Jaim HM, Rabin O, Hu L, Salamanca-Riba LG (2015) Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode. Appl Phys Lett 10(1063/1):4921263Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knych T, Kiesiewicz G, Kwaśniewski P, Mamala A, Kawecki A, Smyrak B (2014) Fabrication and cold drawing of copper covetic nanostructured carbon composites. Arch Metall Mater. doi: 10.2478/amm-2014-0219 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee H, Dellatore SM, Miller WM, Messersmith PB (2007) Mussel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings. Science 318:426–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cui W, Li M, Liu J, Wang B, Zhang C, Jiang L, Cheng Q (2014) A strong integrated strength and toughness artificial nacre based on dopamine cross-linked graphene oxide. ACS Nano 9:9511–9517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krogsgaard M, Nue V, Birkedal H (2016) Mussel-inspired materials: self-healing through coordination chemistry. Chem Eur J 22:844–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wahrmund J, Kim J, Chu L, Wang C, Li Y, Fernandez-Nieves A, Weitz DA, Krokhin A, Hu ZB (2009) Swelling kinetics of a microgel shell. Macromolecules 42:9357–9365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fu Y, Li P, Xie Q, Xu X, Lei L, Chen C, Zou C, Deng W, Yao S (2009) One-pot preparation of polymer-enzyme-metallic nanoparticle composite films for high-performance biosensing of glucose and galactose. Adv Funct Mater 19:1784–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryu S, Chou J, Lee K, Lee D, Hong S, Zhao R, Lee H, Kim SG (2015) Direct insulation-to-conduction transformation of adhesive catecholamine for simultaneous increases of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of CNT fibers. Adv Mater 27:3250–3255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, leinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen S, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Montes JM, Cuevas FG, Cintas J (2010) Analytical theory for the description of powder systems under compression. Appl Phys A 99:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Montes JM, Cuevas FG, Cintas J (2007) Electrical resistivity of metal powder aggregates. Metall Mater Trans B 38B:957–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Renteria JD, Ramirez S, Malekpour H, Alonso B, Centeno A, Zurutuza A, Ccemasov AI, Nika DL, Balandin AA (2015) Strongly anisotropic thermal conductivity of free-standing reduced graphene oxide films annealed at high temperature. Adv Funct Mater. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201501429 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cao H, Wang Y, Xiao F, Ching C, Duan H (2012) Growth of copper nanotubes on graphene paper as free-standing electrodes for direct hydrazine fuel cells. J Phys Chem C 116:7719–7725Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaminska I, Qi W, Barras A, Sobczak J, Niedziolka-Jonsson J, Woisel P, Lyskawa J, Laure W, Opallo M, Li M, Boukherroub R, Szunerits S (2013) Thiol-Yne click reactions on alkynyl-dopamine-modified reduced graphene oxide. Chem Eur J 19:8673–8678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pei S, Cheng H (2012) The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon 50:3210–3228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li H, Aulin YV, Frazer L, Borguet E, Kakodkar R, Feser J, Chen Y, An K, Dikin DA, Ren F (2017) Structure evolution and thermoelectric properties of carbonized polydopamine thin films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b15601 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moulder JF, Stickle WF, Sobol PE, Bomben KD (1995) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Physical Electronics Inc, ChanhassenGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu Y, Ai K, Lu L (2014) Polydopamine and its derivative materials: synthesis and promising applications in energy, environmental, and biomedical fields. Chem Rev 114:5057–5115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li R, Parvez K, Hinkel F, Feng X, Müllen K (2013) Bioinspired wafer-scale production of highly stretchable carbon films for transparent conductive electrodes. Angew Chem Int Ed 52:5535–5538CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringLiaocheng UniversityLiaochengPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations