Synthesis of austenitic stainless steel powder alloys by mechanical alloying
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Fe–18Cr–xNi (x = 8, 12, 13, 15, and 20 wt%) blended elemental powders were subjected to mechanical alloying in a high-energy SPEX shaker mill. The milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was shown that the sequence of phase formation in the Fe–18Cr–8Ni, Fe–18Cr–12Ni and Fe–18Cr–13Ni compositions was ferrite in the early stages of milling and then formation of austenite, which eventually transformed to stress-induced martensite on continued milling. The time for the formation of the austenite phase was shorter for the 12Ni and 13Ni powder blends than for the 8Ni powder. However, in the Fe–18Cr–15Ni and Fe–18Cr–20Ni compositions, the initial phase to form was ferrite and then a fully austenitic structure had formed on milling the powder for 10 h. No martensitic transformation occurred in this case on continued milling. The phase formation and microstructural features were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and diffraction techniques. A new metastable phase diagram was proposed outlining the stability of the austenite phase in ternary Fe–Cr–Ni alloys.
KeywordsFerrite Austenite Martensite Milling Austenitic Stainless Steel
The authors would like to thank Mr. Furkan Türker for assistance with the milling of some samples.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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