Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 3244–3254 | Cite as

Highly thermostable joint of a Cu/Ni–P plating/Sn–0.7Cu solder added with Cu balls

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
  • Naoya Take
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
  • Shijo Nagao
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
Original Paper


Solder joint reliability in power modules is one of the most important issues for hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles; these modules must have highly reliable solder joints, i.e., they must be highly thermostable at temperatures over 175 °C in the future. The soldering surfaces in power modules are often finished with electroless Ni–P plating. Thus, for Cu/Ni–P plating/Sn–0.7Cu joints, it is necessary to suppress Ni diffusion into the solder. Ni diffusion can be suppressed in the presence of a continuous Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at a Ni–P plating/solder interface. To form this IMC, we investigated the composite Sn–0.7Cu solder added with Cu balls. It was confirmed that the addition of 2.5 wt% Cu balls formed a continuous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMC layer between the solder and the Ni–P plating. It is concluded that the IMC layer works well as a Ni diffusion barrier in multiple reflow tests, of which the peak temperature was 330 °C, and in a high-temperature storage test at 200 °C for 1000 h.


Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry Solder Joint Power Module Molten Solder Fuel Cell Vehicle 



The authors would like to thank the students in Chukyo University and colleagues in Toyota Motor Corporation for their helpful discussions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Naoya Take
    • 3
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
    • 4
  • Shijo Nagao
    • 2
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
    • 2
  1. 1.Electronic Components Production Engineering DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyota, AichiJapan
  2. 2.The Institute of Scientific and Industrial ResearchOsaka UniversityIbaraki, OsakaJapan
  3. 3.Power Electronics Development DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyota, AichiJapan
  4. 4.School of EngineeringChukyo UniversityNagoya, AichiJapan

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