Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 554–568 | Cite as

A review of exfoliated graphite

  • D. D. L. ChungEmail author
50th Anniversary

Abstract

Exfoliated graphite (EG) refers to graphite that has a degree of separation of a substantial portion of the carbon layers in the graphite. Graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) is commonly prepared by mechanical agitation of EG. The EG exhibits clinginess, due to its cellular structure, but GNP does not. The clinginess allows the formation of EG compacts and flexible graphite sheet without a binder. The exfoliation typically involves intercalation, followed by heating. Upon heating, the intercalate vaporizes and/or decomposes into smaller molecules, thus causing expansion and cell formation. The sliding of the carbon layers relative to one another enables the cell wall to stretch. The exfoliation process is accompanied by intercalate desorption, so that only a small portion of the intercalate remains after exfoliation. The most widely used intercalate is sulfuric acid. The higher concentration of residue in unwashed EG causes the relative dielectric constant (50 Hz) of the EG to be 360 (higher than 120 for KOH-activated GNP), compared to the value of 38 for the water-washed case. An EG compact is obtained by the compression of EG at a pressure lower than that used for the fabrication of flexible graphite. Compared to flexible graphite, EG compacts are mechanically weak, but they exhibit viscous character, out-of-plane electrical/thermal conductivity and liquid permeability. The viscous character (flexural loss tangent up to 35 for the solid part of the compact) stems from the sliding of the carbon layers relative to one another, with the ease of the sliding enhanced by the exfoliation process.

Keywords

Phase Change Material Carbon Layer Expandable Graphite Relative Dielectric Constant Intercalation Compound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Chung DDL (1987) Exfoliation of graphite. J Mater Sci 22(12):4190–4198. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684-8267-6_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boehm H (2010) Graphene-how a laboratory curiosity suddenly became extremely interesting. Angew Chem Int Ed 49(49):9332–9335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmadi-Moghadam B, Taheri F (2014) Effect of processing parameters on the structure and multi-functional performance of epoxy/GNP-nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 49(18):6180–6190. doi: 10.1007/s10853-014-8332-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inagaki M, Qiu J, Guo Q (2015) Carbon foam: preparation and application. Carbon 87:128–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Herold A, Petitjean D, Furdin G, Klatt M (1994) Exfoliation of graphite intercalation compounds: classification and discussion of the processes from new experimental data relative to graphite-acid compounds. Mater Sci Forum 152–153(Soft Chemistry Routes to New Materials):281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson SH, Chung DDL (1984) Exfoliation of intercalated graphite. Carbon 22(3):253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson SH, Chung DDL (1983) Exfoliation of single crystal graphite and graphite fibers intercalated with halogens. Synth Met 8:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chung DDL (1987) Intercalate vaporization during the exfoliation of graphite intercalated with bromine. Carbon 25(3):361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chung DDL (2002) Review graphite. J Mater Sci 37(8):1475–1489. doi: 10.1023/A:1014915307738 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G (2002) Intercalation compounds of graphite. Adv Phys 51(1):1–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inagaki M, Kang F, Toyoda M (2004) Exfoliation of graphite via intercalation compounds. Chem Phys Carbon 29:1–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flandrois S, Hauw C, Mathur RB (1989–1990) Charge transfer in acceptor graphite intercalation compounds. Synth Met 34(1–3):399–404Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Heerden X, Badenhorst H (2015) The influence of three different intercalation techniques on the microstructure of exfoliated graphite. Carbon 88:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Terence MC, Silva EE, Carrio JAG (2014) Electrochemically exfoliated graphene. J. Nano Res 29:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park S, Kim S (2014) Preparation and capacitive property of graphene nanosheets prepared by using an electrostatic method. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 14(10):7784–7787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang C, Lv W, Xie X, Tang D, Liu C, Yang Q (2013) Towards low temperature thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide for graphene production. Carbon 62:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mishra AK, Srinath C, Jain PK, Padya B, Chopkar M (2013) Characterization of intermediates in the synthesis of reduced graphene-oxide through sequential de-oxygenation. NanoTrends 14(2):1–9Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Owens FJ (2015) Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy evidence for oxidation-induced decomposition of graphite. Mol Phys 113(11):1280–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson SH, Chung DDL (1984) Graphite ribbons formed from graphite fibers. Carbon 22(6):613–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Daumas N, Herold A (1969) Relations between phase concept and reaction mechanics in graphite insertion compounds. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci C 268:373–382Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Heerschap M, Delavignette P, Amelinckx S (1964) Electron microscope study of interlamellar compounds of graphite with bromine, iodine monochloride and ferric chloride. Carbon 1:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heerschap M, Delavignette P (1967) Electron-microscopy study of the ferric chloride/graphite compound. Carbon 5:383–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saidaminov MI, Maksimova NV, Sorokina NE, Avdeev VV (2013) Effect of graphite nitrate exfoliation conditions on the released gas composition and properties of exfoliated graphite. Inorg Mater 49(9):883–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu K (2011) Preparation of exfoliated graphite by microwave using natural graphite with different particle sizes. Adv Mater Res (Zuerich, Switzerland) 163–167(Pt. 3, Advances in Structures):2333–2336Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao Q, Cheng X, Wu J, Yu X (2014) Sulfur-free exfoliated graphite with large exfoliated volume: Preparation, characterization and its adsorption performance. J Ind Eng Chem (Amst Neth) 20(6):4028–4032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sykam Nagaraju, Kar Kamal K (2014) Rapid synthesis of exfoliated graphite by microwave irradiation and oil sorption studies. Mater Lett 117:150–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huczko A, Dabrowska A, Labedz O, Soszynski M, Bystrzejewski M, Baranowski P, Bhatta R, Pokhrel B, Kafle BP, Stelmakh S, Gierlotka S, Dyjak S (2014) Facile and fast combustion synthesis and characterization of novel carbon nanostructures. Phys Status Solidi B 251(12):2563–2568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tanaike O, Yamada Y, Kodama M, Miyajima N (2012) Exfoliation of graphite by pyrolysis of bromine-graphite intercalation compounds in a vacuum glass tube. J Phys Chem Solids 73(12):1420–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kovtyukhova NI, Wang Y, Berkdemir A, Cruz-Silva R, Terrones M, Crespi VH, Mallouk TE (2014) Non-oxidative intercalation and exfoliation of graphite by Bronsted acids. Nat Chem 6(11):957–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Celzard A, Mareche JF, Furdin G (2005) Modelling of exfoliated graphite. Prog Mater Sci 50(1):93–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2013) Viscoelastic behavior of the cell wall of exfoliated graphite. Carbon 61:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang A, Chung DDL (2014) Dielectric and electrical conduction behavior of carbon paste electrochemical electrodes, with decoupling of carbon, electrolyte and interface contributions. Carbon 72:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bardhan KK, Wu JC, Culik JS, Anderson SH, Chung DDL (1980) Kinetics of intercalation and desorption in graphite. Synth Met 2:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Asghar HMA, Hussain SN, Sattar H, Brown NW, Roberts EPL (2014) Environmentally friendly preparation of exfoliated graphite. J Ind Eng Chem (Amst Neth) 20(4):1936–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu D, Liang J (2014) Preparation of expandable graphite by ozone oxidation method. Adv Mater Res (Durnten-Zurich, Switzerland) 1051(Applied Engineering Decisions in the Context of Sustainable Development):121–124Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhao J, Li X, Guo Y, Ma D (2014) Preparation and microstructure of exfoliated graphite with large expanding volume by two-step intercalation. Adv Mater Res (Durnten-Zurich, Switzerland) 852:101–105Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhao J, Li X, Guo Y, Ma D, Li Y (2014) Microstructure and millimeter-wave attenuation performance of exfoliated graphite with different expanding volume. Key Eng Mater 609–610(Micro-Nano Technology XV):3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao J, Li X, Guo Y, Ma D (2014) Preparation and microstructure of exfoliated graphite with large expanding volume by two-step intercalation. Adv Mater Res (Durnten-Zurich, Switzerland) 852(Material Science and Advanced Technologies in Manufacturing):101–105Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hong X, Chung DDL (2015) Exfoliated graphite with relative dielectric constant reaching 360, obtained by exfoliation of acid-intercalated graphite flakes without subsequent removal of the residual acidity. Carbon 91:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ndlovu T, Arotiba OA, Sampath S, Krause RW, Mamba BB (2012) Reactivities of modified and unmodified exfoliated graphite electrodes in selected redox systems. Int J Electrochem Sci 7(10):9441–9453Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wei XH, Liu L, Zhang JX, Shi JL, Guo QG (2010) The preparation and morphology characteristics of exfoliated graphite derived from HClO4-graphite intercalation compounds. Mater Lett 64(9):1007–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skowronski JM, Krawczyk P (2010) Improved hydrogen sorption/desorption capacity of exfoliated NiCl2-graphite intercalation compound effected by thermal treatment. Solid State Ionics 181(13–14):653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ovsiienko I, Lazarenko O, Matzui L, Brusylovets O, Le Normand F, Shames A (2014) Influence of chemical treatment on the microstructure of nanographite. Phys Status Solidi A 211(12):2765–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guadagno L, Raimondo M, Vertuccio L, Mauro M, Guerra G, Lafdi K, De Vivo B, Lamberti P, Spinelli G, Tucci V (2015) Optimization of graphene-based materials outperforming host epoxy matrices. RSC Adv 5(46):36969–36978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    She Y, Lu Z, Ni M, Li L, Leung MKH (2015) Facile synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur codoped carbon from ionic liquid as metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(13):7214–7221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mar M, Ahmad Y, Dubois M, Guerin K, Batisse N, Hamwi A (2015) Dual C-F bonding in fluorinated exfoliated graphite. J Fluor Chem 174:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang G, Sun Q, Zhang Y, Fan J, Ma L (2010) Sorption and regeneration of magnetic exfoliated graphite as a new sorbent for oil pollution. Desalination 263(1–3):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ionov SG, Avdeev VV, Kuvshinnikov SV, Pavlova EP (2000) Physical and chemical properties of flexible graphite foils. Mol Cryst Liquid Cryst Sci Technol A 340(349–54):29Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wei XH, Liu L, Zhang JX, Shi JL, Guo QG (2010) Mechanical, electrical, thermal performances and structure characteristics of flexible graphite sheets. J Mater Sci 45:2449–2455. doi: 10.1007/s10853-010-4216-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chung DDL (2000) Flexible graphite for gasketing, adsorption, electromagnetic interference shielding, vibration damping, electrochemical applications, and stress sensing. J Mater Eng Perform 9(2):161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chugh R, Chung DDL (2002) Flexible graphite as a heating element. Carbon 40(13):2285–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2012) Dynamic mechanical properties of flexible graphite made from exfoliated graphite. Carbon 50:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Luo X, Chugh R, Biller BC, Hoi YM, Chung DDL (2002) Electronic applications of flexible graphite. J Electron Mater 31(5):535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Luo X, Chung DDL (1996) Electromagnetic interference shielding reaching 130 dB using flexible graphite. Carbon 34(10):1293–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chung DDL (2001) Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of carbon materials. Carbon 39(2):279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kitaoka S, Wada M, Nagai T, Osa N, Konno T (2011) Increasing the thermal diffusivity of flexible graphite sheets by superheated steam treatment. J Mater Sci 46(4):1132–1135. doi: 10.1007/s10853-010-4991-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kobayashi M, Toda H, Takeuchi A, Uesugi K, Suzuki Y (2012) Three-dimensional evaluation of the compression and recovery behavior in a flexible graphite sheet by synchrotron radiation microtomography. Mater Charact 69:52–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chung DDL (2012) Carbon materials for structural self-sensing, electromagnetic shielding and thermal interfacing. Carbon 50:3342–3353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chung DDL, Takizawa Y (2012) Performance of isotropic and anisotropic heat spreaders. J Electron Mater 41(9):2580–2587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rogacheva AE, Kharitonov AP, Vinogradov AS, Teplyakov VV (2010) Gas permeability properties of modified membranes based on exfoliated graphite. Desalin Water Treat 14(1–3):192–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2014) Thermal and electrical conduction in the compaction direction of exfoliated graphite and their relation to the structure. Carbon 77:538–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chung DDL (2014) Interface-derived extraordinary viscous behavior of exfoliated graphite. Carbon 68:646–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2015) Elastomeric behavior of exfoliated graphite, as shown by instrumented indentation testing. Carbon 81:505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fu W, Chung DDL (2001) Vibration reduction ability of polymers, particularly polymethylmethacrylate and polytetrafluoroethylene. Polym Polym Compos 9(6):423–426Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Muthusamy S, Wang S, Chung DDL (2010) Unprecedented vibration damping with high values of loss modulus and loss tangent, exhibited by cement-matrix graphite network composite. Carbon 48(5):1457–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2013) Comparative evaluation of cement-matrix composites with distributed versus networked exfoliated graphite. Carbon 63:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Filimonov SV, Sorokina NE, Yashchenko NV, Malakho AP, Avdeev VV (2013) Thermal properties of high-porosity monoliths based on exfoliated graphite. Inorg Mater 49(4):340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gao L, Tu H (2014) Research on oilfield produced water treatment by moderately compressed exfoliated graphite blocks. Appl Mech Mater 468(Research on Material Engineering and Manufacturing Engineering):53–56Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ndlovu T, Arotiba OA, Sampath S, Krause RW, Mamba BB (2011) Electrochemical detection and removal of lead in water using poly(propylene imine) modified re-compressed exfoliated graphite electrodes. J Appl Electrochem 41(12):1389–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lin C, Chung DDL (2009) Graphite nanoplatelet pastes versus carbon black pastes as thermal interface materials. Carbon 47(1):295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Xiang J, Drzal LT (2011) Thermal conductivity of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet paper. Carbon 49(3):773–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ferreira CI, Bianchi O, Oviedo MAS, Bof-de-Oliveira RV, Mauler RS (2013) Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites. Polimeros Ciencia e Tecnologia 23(4):456–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sykam N, Gautam RK, Kar KK (2015) Electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of exfoliated graphite/phenolic resin composite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Polym Eng Sci 55(4):917–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Valentini M, Piana F, Pionteck J, Lamastra FR, Nanni F (2015) Electromagnetic properties and performance of exfoliated graphite (EG)—thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites at microwaves. Compos Sci Technol 114:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Boehle M, Lafdi K, Zinsser E, Collins P (2010) Exfoliated graphite as a filler to enhance the electromagnetic interference shielding of polymers. J Sci Conf Proc 2(1):3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Avila AF, Munhoz VC, de Oliveira AM, Santos MCG, Lacerda GRBS, Goncalves CP (2014) Nano-based systems for oil spills control and cleanup. J Hazard Mater 272:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kujawski M, Pearse JD, Smela E (2010) Elastomers filled with exfoliated graphite as compliant electrodes. Carbon 48(9):2409–2417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yu L, Zhang Y, Shang J, Ke S, Tong W, Shen B, Huang H (2012) Electrical and dielectric properties of exfoliated graphite/polyimide composite films with low percolation threshold. J Electron Mater 41(9):2439–2446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yu L, Zhang Y, Tong W, Shang J, Lv F, Chu PK, Guo W (2012) Hierarchical composites of conductivity controllable polyaniline layers on the exfoliated graphite for dielectric application. Composites A 43(11):2039–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Naderi HR, Mortaheb HR, Zolfaghari A (2014) Supercapacitive properties of nanostructured MnO2/exfoliated graphite synthesized by ultrasonic vibration. J Electroanal Chem 719:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yang Y, Liu E, Li L, Huang Z, Shen H, Xiang X (2009) Nanostructured MnO2/exfoliated graphite composite electrode as supercapacitors. J Alloys Compd 487(1–2):564–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Focke WW, Badenhorst H, Ramjee S, Kruger HJ, Van Schalkwyk R, Rand B (2014) Graphite foam from pitch and expandable graphite. Carbon 73:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jana P, Fierro V, Pizzi A, Celzard A (2014) Biomass-derived, thermally conducting, carbon foams for seasonal thermal storage. Biomass Bioenergy 67:312–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tikhomirov AS, Sorokina NE, Shornikova ON, Morozov VA, Van Tendeloo G, Avdeev VV (2010) The chemical vapor infiltration of exfoliated graphite to produce carbon/carbon composites. Carbon 49(1):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen P, Chung DDL (2013) Mechanical energy dissipation using cement-based materials with admixtures. ACI Mater J 110(3):279–290Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fu X, Chung DDL (1996) Vibration damping admixtures for cement. Cem Concr Res 26(1):69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chung DDL (2002) Improving cement-based materials by using silica fume. J Mater Sci 37(4):673–682. doi: 10.1023/A:1013889725971 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Song X, Shi Z, Tan X, Zhang S, Liu G, Wu K (2014) One-step solvent exfoliation of graphite to produce a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensor for tartrazine. Sens Actuators B 197:104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ma C, Ma C, Wang J, Wang H, Shi J, Song Y, Guo Q, Liu L (2014) Exfoliated graphite as a flexible and conductive support for Si-based Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon 72:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zhao Q, Meng S, Wang J, Li Z, Liu J, Guo Y (2014) Preparation of solid superacid S2O2-8/TiO2-exfoliated graphite (EG) and its catalytic performance. Ceramics Int 40(10 Part B):16183–16187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ischenko EV, Matzui LY, Gayday SV, Vovchenko LL, Kartashova TV, Lisnyak VV (2010) Thermo-exfoliated graphite containing CuO/Cu2(OH)3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+) composites: preparation, characterization and catalytic performance in CO conversion. Materials 3:572–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Savchenko DV, Ionov SG, Sizov AI (2010) Properties of carbon-carbon composites based on exfoliated graphite. Inorg Mater 46(2):132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sharma M, Chung DDL (2015) Solder-graphite network composite sheets as high-performance thermal interface materials. J Electron Mater 44(3):929–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Leong C, Aoyagi Y, Chung DDL (2006) Carbon black pastes as coatings for improving thermal gap-filling materials. Carbon 44(3):435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wang H, Liu Z, Chen X, Han P, Dong S, Cui G (2011) Exfoliated graphite nanosheets/carbon nanotubes hybrid materials for superior performance supercapacitors. J Solid State Electrochem 15(6):1179–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kim M, Hwang S, Kim B, Baek J, Shin H, Park HW, Park Y, Bae I, Lee S (2014) Modeling, processing, and characterization of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet-nylon 6 composite fibers. Composites B 66:511–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Karevan M, Kalaitzidou K (2013) Understanding the property enhancement mechanism in exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets reinforced polymer nanocomposites. Compos Interfaces 20(4):255–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Duguay AJ, Kiziltas A, Nader JW, Gardner DJ, Dagher HJ (2014) Impact properties and rheological behavior of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet-filled impact modified polypropylene nanocomposites. J Nanopart Res 16(3):2307/1–2307/11Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    King JA, Via MD, Morrison FA, Wiese KR, Beach EA, Cieslinski MJ, Bogucki GR (2012) Characterization of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets/polycarbonate composites: electrical and thermal conductivity, and tensile, flexural, and rheological properties. J Compos Mater 46(9):1029–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Alzari V, Mariani A, Monticelli O, Valentini L, Nuvoli D, Piccinini M, Scognamillo S, Bon SB, Illescas J (2010) Stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels containing partially exfoliated graphite. J Polym Sci A 48(23):5375–5381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Patsidis AC, Kalaitzidou K, Psarras GC (2014) Graphite nanoplatelets/polymer nanocomposites: thermomechanical, dielectric, and functional behavior. J Therm Anal Calorim 116(1):41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Al-Ghamdi AA, Al-Hartomy OA, Al-Solamy F, Al-Ghamdi AA, El-Tantawy F (2013) Electromagnetic wave shielding and microwave absorbing properties of hybrid epoxy resin/foliated graphite nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 127(3):2227–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim M, Yan J, Joo K, Pandey JK, Kang Y, Ahn S (2013) Synergistic effects of carbon nanotubes and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets for electromagnetic interference shielding and soundproofing. J Appl Polym Sci 130(6):3947–3951Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shui X, Chung DDL (1997) Nickel filament polymer-matrix composites with low surface impedance and high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness. J Electron Mater 26(8):928–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    He F, Lam K, Fan J, Chan LH (2014) Improved dielectric properties for chemically functionalized exfoliated graphite nanoplates/syndiotactic polystyrene composites prepared by a solution-blending method. Carbon 80:496–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Patsidis AC, Kalaitzidou K, Psarras GC (2012) Dielectric response, functionality and energy storage in epoxy nanocomposites: barium titanate vs. exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Mater Chem Phys 135(2–3):798–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cho D, Hwang JH (2013) Elastomeric coating of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets with amine-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile): characterization and its epoxy toughening effect. Adv Polymer Technol 32(4):21366/1–21366/8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Song SH, Jeong HK, Kang YG (2010) Preparation and characterization of exfoliated graphite and its styrene butadiene rubber nanocomposites. J Ind Eng Chem (Amst Neth) 16(6):1059–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jeong S, Chang SJ, We S, Kim S (2015) Energy efficient thermal storage montmorillonite with phase change material containing exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 139:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wu C, Pu N, Liao C, Wu B, Liu Y, Ger M (2015) High-electrical-resistivity thermally-conductive phase change materials prepared by adding nanographitic fillers into paraffin. Microelectron Eng 138:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mallow A, Abdelaziz O, Kalaitzidou K, Graham S (2012) Investigation of the stability of paraffin-exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet composites for latent heat thermal storage systems. J Mater Chem 22(46):24469–24476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Huang J, Wang TY, Wang CH, Rao ZH (2011) Exfoliated graphite/paraffin nanocomposites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage application. Mater Res Innov 15(6):422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Xiang J, Drzal LT (2011) Investigation of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) in improving thermal conductivity of paraffin wax-based phase change material. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 95(7):1811–1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jeong S, Jeon J, Chung O, Kim S, Kim S (2013) Evaluation of PCM/diatomite composites using exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) to improve thermal properties. J Therm Anal Calorim 114(2):689–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jeong S, Chung O, Yu S, Kim S, Kim S (2013) Improvement of the thermal properties of Bio-based PCM using exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 117:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Idumah CI, Hassan A, Affam AC (2015) A review of recent developments in flammability of polymer nanocomposites. Rev Chem Eng 31(2):149–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Inuwa IM, Hassan A, Wang D, Samsudin SA, Mohamad Haafiz MK, Wong SL, Jawaid M (2014) Influence of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets on the flammability and thermal properties of polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 110:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pedrazzoli D, Pegoretti A, Kalaitzidou K (2014) Synergistic effect of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets and short glass fiber on the mechanical and interfacial properties of epoxy composites. Compos Sci Technol 98:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kim M, Kang G, Park HW, Park Y, Park Y, Yoon KH (2012) Design, manufacturing, and characterization of high-performance lightweight bipolar plates based on carbon nanotube-exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet hybrid nanocomposites. J Nanomater 2012:115Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Yang Y, Wang C, Chen M, Shi Z, Zheng J (2010) Facile synthesis of mesophase pitch/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nanocomposite and its application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J Solid State Chem 183(9):2116–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sherif EM, Latief FH, Junaedi H, Almajid AA (2012) Influence of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets particles additions and sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites. Int J Electrochem Sci 7(5):4352–4361Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Latief FH, Sherif EM, Almajid AA, Junaedi H (2011) Fabrication of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets-reinforced aluminum composites and evaluating their mechanical properties and corrosion behavior. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 92(2):485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sherif EM, Almajid AA, Latif FH, Junaedi H (2011) Effects of graphite on the corrosion behavior of aluminum-graphite composite in sodium chloride solutions. Int J Electrochem Sci 6(4):1085–1099Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kim J, Lee J, Choi Y, Kim S, Moon HJ, Yoon D (2013) Confirmation of the performance of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets for pollutant reduction rate on wood panel. J Compos Mater 47(8):1039–1044, 6Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lee J, Kim J, Kim S, Kim JT (2013) Thermal extractor analysis of VOCs emitted from building materials and evaluation of the reduction performance of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Indoor Built Environ 22(1):68–76, 9Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jiang H, Chen P, Zhang W, Luo S, Luo X, Au C, Li M (2014) Deposition of nano Fe3O4mZrO2 onto exfoliated graphite oxide sheets and its application for removal of amaranth. Appl Surf Sci 317:1080–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rider AN, An Q, Thostenson ET, Brack N (2014) Ultrasonicated-ozone modification of exfoliated graphite for stable aqueous graphitic nanoplatelet dispersions. Nanotechnology 25(49):495607/1–495607/12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ion I, Sirbu F, Ion AC (2015) Thermophysical investigations of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets and active carbon in binary aqueous environments at different temperatures. J Mater Sci 50(2):587–598. doi: 10.1007/s10853-014-8616-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ion AC, Alpatova A, Ion I, Culetu A (2011) Study on phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions on exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets. Mater Sci Eng B 176(7):588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Park EJ, Park SD, Bang IC, ParkY Park HW (2012) Critical heat flux characteristics of nanofluids based on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs). Mater Lett 81:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Do I, Drzal LT (2014) Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Pt nanoparticles onto exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets for fuel cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(15):12126–12136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lin C, Chung DDL (2007) Effect of carbon black structure on the effectiveness of carbon black thermal interface pastes. Carbon 45(15):2922–2931CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New YorkUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations