Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 457–466 | Cite as

Stress-assisted removal of conjugation boundaries in non-modulated Ni–Mn–Ga by coordinated secondary twinning

  • B. Muntifering
  • L. Kovarik
  • N. D. Browning
  • R. C. Pond
  • W. B. Knowlton
  • P. Müllner
50th Anniversary


Observations are presented, obtained by in situ straining and conventional TEM, of a transformation mechanism by coordinated secondary twinning predicted by Mullner and King. The material studied is the martensitic phase of a non-modulated Ni–Mn–Ga alloy, which exhibits a microstructure comprising domains of lamellar matrix/twin composites. Straining these specimens induced lamellar domains to transform into their conjugate counterparts. In this process, secondary twinning generates a change of misorientation between the matrix and twin lamellae of the initial domain by nearly 23°. The orientation evolves over a region behind the transformation front about 100 nm in extent.


Twin Boundary Twin Lamella Tetragonal Unit Cell Transformation Front Disclination Dipole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Nikki Kucza and Martika Flores-Ramos for assistance with the growth of single crystals. We acknowledge partial financial support from the National Science Foundation through grant DMR-1008167, and NSF MRI awards 0521315 (TEM) and 0619795 (XRD). The research described in this paper is part of the Chemical Imaging Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 operated for DOE by Battelle. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Muntifering
    • 1
  • L. Kovarik
    • 2
  • N. D. Browning
    • 2
  • R. C. Pond
    • 3
  • W. B. Knowlton
    • 1
    • 4
  • P. Müllner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Molecular Sciences LaboratoryPacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  3. 3.College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical SciencesUniversity of ExeterExeterUK
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA

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