Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 50, Issue 16, pp 5389–5401 | Cite as

Enhanced flame retardancy of polypropylene by melamine-modified graphene oxide

  • Bihe Yuan
  • Haibo Sheng
  • Xiaowei Mu
  • Lei Song
  • Qilong Tai
  • Yongqian Shi
  • Kim Meow Liew
  • Yuan Hu
Original Paper


Graphene oxide (GO) is modified by melamine (MA) via the strong ππ interactions, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic attraction. PP composites are prepared by melt compounding method, and GO/functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) is in situ thermally reduced during the processing. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicate that FGO nanosheets are homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrix with intercalation and exfoliation microstructure. The FGO/PP nanocomposite exhibits higher thermal stability and flame retardant property than those of the GO counterpart. During the thermal decomposition, the intercalated MA is condensed to graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) in the confined micro-zone created by GO nanosheets. This in situ formed g-C3N4 provides a protective layer to graphene and enhances its barrier effect. The heat release rate and the escape of volatile degradation products are reduced in the FGO-based nanocomposites.


Graphene Oxide Flame Retardant Reduce Graphene Oxide Cone Calorimeter Oxygen Functional Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge the research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21374111), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK20130369), and the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Grant No. 9042047, CityU 11208914).

Supplementary material

10853_2015_9083_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1747 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bihe Yuan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haibo Sheng
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Mu
    • 1
  • Lei Song
    • 1
  • Qilong Tai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yongqian Shi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kim Meow Liew
    • 3
  • Yuan Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  2. 2.USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced StudyUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaSuzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Architecture and Civil EngineeringCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong

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