Drastic modification of graphene oxide properties by incorporation of nickel: a simple inorganic chemistry approach
Strong increase in electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) (I ≈ 10−9 A) is found by addition of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) preliminarily solved by HCl (Nisol) (I ≈ 10−4 A) or powder (Nipow) obtained from this solution (I ≈ 10−6 A), while simply mixing GO with NiNPs an insulator similar to pure GO is obtained. Thus, Nisol and Nipow can be used to transform GO from insulator to semiconductor. One of the transformation mechanisms is Ni as spillover. At the same time, different kinds of the magnetic response are obtained on GO and reduced GO (rGO) samples with and without Ni. Weak paramagnetic response is detected in pure GO. Stronger paramagnetic behavior is observed for GO and rGO mixed with Nisol or Nipow. Pure rGO sample shows weak ferromagnetism represented by slim but visible hysteresis with remnant magnetization M r of 0.05 emu/g. GO with NiNPs presents clear hysteresis with M r of 2.8 emu/g, while sample prepared by addition of NiNPs to rGO presents the largest hysteresis with M r as high as 11.8 emu/g. Thus, the optimal procedure to obtain the magnetic response requested for particular application can be chosen.
KeywordsGraphene Oxide Hydrazine Hydrate Resistive Switching Remnant Magnetization Switching Material
Olena Okhay acknowledges FCT for financial support (SFRH/BD/77704/2011). This work was funded also by the EU’s 7th Framework program IFOX (NMP3-LA-2010 246102), the Graduate School of Excellence MAINZ (GSC 266 Mainz), the German Science Foundation (DFG SPP 1459 Graphene), and the ERC (2007-Stg 208162). Alexander Tkach acknowledges also funds by FEDER through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade—COMPETE and national funds through FCT within CICECO Project—FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-037271 (FCT Ref. PEst-C/CTM/LA0011/2013) and independent researcher grant IF/00602/2013.
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