Through-thickness permeability study of orthogonal and angle-interlock woven fabrics
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- Xiao, X., Endruweit, A., Zeng, X. et al. J Mater Sci (2015) 50: 1257. doi:10.1007/s10853-014-8683-4
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Three-dimensional (3D) woven textiles, including orthogonal and angle-interlock woven fabrics, exhibit high inter-laminar strength in addition to good in-plane mechanical properties and are particularly suitable for lightweight structural applications. Resin transfer moulding (RTM) is a cost-effective manufacturing process for composites with 3D-woven reinforcement. With increasing preform thickness, the influence of through-thickness permeability on RTM processing of composites becomes increasingly significant. This study proposes an analytical model for prediction of the through-thickness permeability, based on Poiseuille’s law for hydraulic ducts approximating realistic flow channel geometries in woven fabrics. The model is applied to four 3D-woven fabrics and three 2D-woven fabrics. The geometrical parameters of the fabrics were characterized by employing optical microscopy. For validation, the through-thickness permeability was determined experimentally. The equivalent permeability of inter-yarn gaps was found to account for approximately 90 % of the through-thickness permeability for the analysed fabrics. The analytical predictions agree well with the experimental data of the seven fabrics.