Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 20, pp 7156–7171 | Cite as

Preparation, characterization, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene aqueous nanofluids

  • Mohammad Mehrali
  • Emad Sadeghinezhad
  • Sara Tahan Latibari
  • Mehdi Mehrali
  • Hussein Togun
  • M. N. M. Zubir
  • S. N. Kazi
  • Hendrik Simon Cornelis Metselaar
Original Paper


Nanofluids perform a crucial role in the development of newer technologies ideal for industrial purposes. In this study, Nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids, with varying concentrations of nanoparticles (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%) were prepared using the two-step method in a 0.025 wt% Triton X-100 (as a surfactant) aqueous solution as a base. Stability, zeta potential, thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, and electrical conductivity of nanofluids containing NDG particles were studied. The stability of the nanofluids was investigated by UV–vis over a time span of 6 months and concentrations remain relatively constant while the maximum relative concentration reduction was 20 %. The thermal conductivity of nanofluids was increased with the particle concentration and temperature, while the maximum enhancement was about 36.78 % for a nanoparticle loading of 0.06 wt%. These experimental results compared with some theoretical models including Maxwell and Nan’s models and observed a good agreement between Nan’s model and the experimental results. Study of the rheological properties of NDG nanofluids reveals that it followed the Newtonian behaviors, where viscosity decreased linearly with the rise of temperature. It has been observed that the specific heat of NDG nanofluid reduced gradually with the increase of concentration of nanoparticles and temperature. The electrical conductivity of the NDG nanofluids enhanced significantly due to the dispersion of NDG in the base fluid. This novel type of fluids demonstrates an outstanding potential for use as innovative heat transfer fluids in medium-temperature systems such as solar collectors.


Thermal Conductivity Contact Angle Graphene Oxide Zeta Potential Specific Heat Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols


Carbon nanotube


Specific heat


Specific heat capacities of nanofluid


Specific heat capacities of nanoparticle


Specific heat capacities of base fluid


Ethylene glycol


Thermal conductivity based fluid


Thermal conductivity nanofluids


Thermal conductivity of the particle


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes


Nitrogen-doped graphene


Field emission scanning electron microscopy


Single-walled carbon nanotubes


Transmission electron microscope




Weight percentage


X-ray diffraction




Volume fraction


Densities of nanofluid


Densities of nanoparticles


Densities of base fluid,


Molar absorptivity, L (mol−1 cm−1)


Electrophoretic mobility




Dielectric constant of the liquid in the boundary layer



This research work has been financially supported by High Impact Research (MOHE-HIR) grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/ENG/21-(D000021-16001), UMRG grant RP012D-13AET. The author wishes to thank the Bright Sparks unit (University of Malaya) for additional financial support.

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

10853_2014_8424_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1465 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Mehrali
    • 1
  • Emad Sadeghinezhad
    • 2
  • Sara Tahan Latibari
    • 1
  • Mehdi Mehrali
    • 1
  • Hussein Togun
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. N. M. Zubir
    • 2
  • S. N. Kazi
    • 2
  • Hendrik Simon Cornelis Metselaar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Material Research CenterUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Thi-QarNassiriyaIraq

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