Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 19, pp 6830–6837 | Cite as

Synthesis and electrochemical performances of a novel two-dimensional nanocomposite: polyaniline-coated laponite nanosheets

  • Xingwei Li
  • Min Zhou
  • Hailing Xu
  • Gengchao Wang
  • Zhun Wang


A novel two-dimensional nanocomposite, polyaniline-coated laponite (polyaniline/laponite) nanosheets, has been prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline on the surface of laponite nanosheets. These sheets present a loosely stacked structure with the formation of a great number of pores, which it can provide a larger electrode/electrolyte contact surface area, shorten the path for ions transport in the active material, and alleviate the expansion and contraction of the electrode material during the charge/discharge processes, leading to an improved electrochemical performance. As an active material for supercapacitors, the specific charge/discharge capacitance of polyaniline/laponite nanosheets is 375 and 330 F g−1 (based on the total working electrode mass) at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, respectively, with a coulombic efficiency of 88 % which is higher than that of pure polyaniline (28 %). Moreover, polyaniline/laponite nanosheets also show a good rate capability with a growth of current density from 0.5 to 30 A g−1, a specific discharge capacitance of 266 F g−1 remained at 30 A g−1. This work suggests a strategy to improve the electrochemical performances of polyaniline.


Polyaniline Electrochemical Performance Coulombic Efficiency Contact Surface Area High Theoretical Capacitance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful for the financial support from Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (B502) and Shanghai Key Laboratory Project (08DZ2230500).


  1. 1.
    Hu CC, Chang KH, Lin MC, Wu YT (2006) Design and tailoring of the nanotubular arrayed architecture of hydrous RuO2 for next generation supercapacitors. Nano Lett 6:2690–2695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huo YQ, Zhang HY, Jiang JY (2012) A three-dimensional nanostructured PANI/MnO(x) porous microsphere and its capacitive performance. J Mater Sci 47:7026–7034. doi: 10.1007/s10853-012-6654-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou M, Pu F, Wang Z, Guan S (2014) Nitrogen-doped porous carbons through KOH activation with superior performance in supercapacitors. Carbon 68:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guan H, Fan LZ, Zhang HC, Qu XH (2010) Polyaniline nanofibers obtained by interfacial polymerization for high-rate supercapacitors. Electrochim Acta 56:964–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhadraa S, Khastgir D, Singhaa NK, Lee JH (2009) Progress in preparation, processing and applications of polyaniline. Prog Polym Sci 34:783–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C’iric’-Marjanovic’ G (2013) Recent advances in polyaniline composites with metals, metalloids and nonmetals. Synth Met 170:31–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C’iric’-Marjanovic’ G (2013) Recent advances in polyaniline research: polymerization mechanisms, structural aspects, properties and applications. Synth Met 177:1–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacDiarmid AG (2001) “Synthetic metals”: a novel role for organic polymers (Nobel lecture). Angew Chem Int Ed 40:2581–2590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lota K, Khomenko VK, Frackowiak E (2004) Capacitance properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotubes composites. J Phys Chem Solids 65:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peng C, Jin J, Chen GZ (2007) A comparative study on electrochemical co-deposition and capacitance of composite films of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes. Electrochim Acta 53:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu L, Tu J, Jiao S, Hou J, Zhu H, Fray DJ (2012) In situ electrochemical polymerization of a nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite in a reverse micelle electrolyte and its application in a supercapacitor. Phys Chem Chem Phys 14:15652–15656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhai YP, Dou YQ, Zhao DY, Fulvio PF, Mayes RT, Dai S (2011) Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage. Adv Mater 23:4828–4850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fan LZ, Hu YS, Maier J, Adelhelm P, Smarsly B, Antonietti M (2007) High electroactivity of polyaniline in supercapacitors by using a hierarchically porous carbon monolith as a support. Adv Funct Mater 17:3083–3087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wei J, Zhang J, Liu Y, Xu G, Chen Z, Xu Q (2013) Controlled growth of whisker-like polyaniline on carbon nanofibers and their long cycle life for supercapacitors. RSC Adv 3:3957–3962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Henry DT, D’Arcy JM, Wang Y, Beltramo PJ, Strong VA, Kaner RB (2011) The oxidation of aniline to produce ‘‘polyaniline’’: a process yielding many different nanoscale structures. J Mater Chem 21:3534–3550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martin CR (1994) Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach. Science 266:1961–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang DY, Caruso F (2001) Fabrication of polyaniline inverse opals via templating ordered colloidal assemblies. Adv Mater 13:350–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qiu HJ, Zhai J, Li SH, Wan MX (2003) Oriented growth of self-assembled polyaniline nanowire arrays using a novel method. Adv Funct Mater 13:925–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu JH, Liu XW (2012) Two-dimensional nanoarchitectures for lithium storage. Adv Mater 24:4097–4111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li ZF, Zhang HY, Liu Q, Sun LL, Stanciu L, Xie J (2013) Fabrication of high-surface-area graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites and their application in supercapacitors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:2685–2691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li YZ, Zhao X, Yu PP, Zhang QH (2013) Oriented arrays of polyaniline nanorods grown on graphite nanosheets for an electrochemical supercapacitor. Langmuir 29:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruzicka B, Zaccarelli E (2011) A fresh look at the Laponite phase diagram. Soft Matter 7:1268–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang AY, Berg JC (2006) High-salt stabilization of Laponite clay particles. J Colloiol Interface Sci 296:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Herrera NN, Letoffe JM, Putaux JL, David L, Bourgeat-Lami E (2004) Aqueous dispersions of silane-functionalized laponite clay platelets. A first step toward the elaboration of water-based polymer/clay nanocomposites. Langmuir 20:1564–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sudha JD, Pich A, Reena VL, Sivakala S, Adler Hans-Juergen P (2011) Water-dispersible multifunctional polyaniline-laponite-keggin iron nanocomposites through a template approach. J Mater Chem 21:16642–16650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghosh S, Inganas O (1999) Conducting polymer hydrogels as 3D electrodes: applications for supercapacitors. Adv Mater 11:1214–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pouget JP, Jozefowicz ME, Epstein AJ, Tang X, MacDiarmid AG (1991) X-ray structure of polyaniline. Macromolecules 24:779–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li YZ, Zhao X, Xu Q, Zhang QH, Chen DJ (2011) Facile preparation and enhanced capacitance of the polyaniline/sodium alginate nanofiber network for supercapacitors. Langmuir 27:6458–6463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kang ET, Neoh KG, Tanh KL (1998) Polyaniline: a polymer with many interesting intrinsic redox states. Prog Polym Sci 23:277–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rodrigues PC, Cantao MP, Janissek P, Scarpa PCN, Mathias AL, Ramos LP, Gomes MAB (2002) Polyaniline/lignin blends: fTIR, MEV and electrochemical characterization. Eur Polym J 38:2213–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conway BE, Birss V, Wojtowicz J (1997) the role and utilization of pseudocapacitance for energy storage by supercapacitors. J Power Sources 66:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xu JJ, Wang K, Zu SZ, Han BH, Wei ZX (2010) Hierarchical nanocomposites of polyaniline nanowire arrays on graphene oxide sheets with synergistic effect for energy storage. ACS Nano 4:5019–5026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fan H, Wang H, Zhao N, Zhang X, Xu J (2012) Hierarchical nanocomposite of polyaniline nanorods grown on the surface of carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor electrode. J Mater Chem 22:2774–2780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang YG, Xia YY (2006) Hybrid aqueous energy storage cells using activated carbon and lithium-intercalated compounds. The C/LiMn2O4 system. J Electrochem Soc 153:A450–A454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang YG, Li HQ, Xia YY (2006) Ordered whiskerlike polyaniline grown on the surface of mesoporous carbon and its electrochemical capacitance performance. Adv Mater 18:2619–2623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu Q, Nayfeh MH, Yau ST (2010) Supercapacitor electrodes based on polyaniline-silicon nanoparticle composite. J Power Sources 195:3956–3959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mondal SK, Barai K, Munichandraiah N (2007) High capacitance properties of polyaniline by electrochemical deposition on a porous carbon substrate. Eelectrochim Acta 52:3258–3264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang K, Huang JY, Wei ZX (2010) Conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors. J Phys Chem C 114:8062–8067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lang XY, Zhang L, Fujita T, Ding Y, Chen MW (2012) Three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Au/polyaniline hybrid films for high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. J Power Sources 197:325–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingwei Li
    • 1
  • Min Zhou
    • 1
  • Hailing Xu
    • 1
  • Gengchao Wang
    • 1
  • Zhun Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and EngineeringEast China University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations