Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 19, pp 6656–6666 | Cite as

Ultrafine-grained Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr alloy produced by ECAP at room temperature

  • Zhiming Li
  • Baolong Zheng
  • Yitian Wang
  • Troy Topping
  • Yizhang Zhou
  • Ruslan Z. Valiev
  • Aidang Shan
  • Enrique J. Lavernia
Ultrafinegrained Materials


To ascertain the influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on a Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr (TNTZ) alloy, we studied the room temperature mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr (wt%) alloy prepared via equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) of the as-hot-extruded alloy. The tensile behavior, phase composition, grain size, preferred orientation, and dislocation density of the UFG alloy, processed under different conditions, were analyzed and discussed. Compared to the as-hot-extruded alloy, the ECAP-processed TNTZ alloy (3 passes) exhibited approximately 40 and 88 % increase in average ultimate strength and yield strength, respectively. Moreover, as the number of ECAP passes increased from 3 to 6, the TNTZ alloy exhibited not only the expected increase in ultimate and yield strength values, but also a slight increase in elongation. Our results suggest that the deformation mechanisms that govern the behavior of the as-hot-extruded coarse grained (CG) TNTZ alloy during ECAP involve a combination of stress-induced martensitic transformation and dislocation activity. In the case of the ECAP-processed UFG TNTZ alloy, the deformation mechanism is proposed to involve two components: first, dislocation activity induced by the strain field imposed during ECAP; and second, the formation of α″ martensite phase during the early stages of ECAP which eventually transforms into β phase during continued deformation. We propose that the deformation mechanism governing the room temperature behavior of the TNTZ alloy strongly depends on the grain size of the β phase.


Ultrafine-grained materials Titanium alloys Equal-channel angular pressing Microstructure Mechanical behavior Deformation mechanism 



The financial support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF DMR-1210437) is gratefully appreciated. For RZV, this project was partially supported by the Russian Federal Ministry for Education and Science (Contract No. 14.B25.31.0017). The author (ZL) would like to thank the financial support from the China Scholarship Council (No. 201306230030).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiming Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Baolong Zheng
    • 1
  • Yitian Wang
    • 1
  • Troy Topping
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yizhang Zhou
    • 1
  • Ruslan Z. Valiev
    • 4
    • 5
  • Aidang Shan
    • 2
  • Enrique J. Lavernia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCalifornia State UniversitySacramentoUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Physics of Advanced MaterialsUfa State Aviation Technical UniversityUfaRussia
  5. 5.Laboratory for Mechanics of Bulk Nanostructured MaterialsSaint Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

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