Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 14, pp 4946–4961 | Cite as

Self-formation of 3D interconnected macroporous carbon xerogels derived from polybenzoxazine by selective solvent during the sol–gel process

  • Uthen Thubsuang
  • Hatsuo Ishida
  • Sujitra Wongkasemjit
  • Thanyalak Chaisuwan


Polybenzoxazine (PBZ)-based carbon xerogel has been synthesized by a sol–gel process and carbonization. By different solvents, the microstructure of the porous carbon can be tailored for a wide range of desired properties. In addition, a new aspect to produce 3D interconnected macroporous carbon xerogels by selective solvent via self-formation is introduced. Dimethylformamide (DMF), dioxane, and isopropanol are separately used as a solvent during a sol–gel process. The SEM micrographs reveal different structures of carbon xerogel depending on the type of solvent used. Using DMF as a solvent during a sol–gel process and ambient pressure drying, the carbon xerogel shows a similar porous structure to that of a PBZ-based carbon aerogel obtained through supercritical CO2 drying. In the DMF system, a short gelation time is observed (1.15–3 h) due to the fast ring-opening polymerization accelerated by DMF resulting in the formation of 3D interconnected macroporous structure without using any template. Comparing the rates of cluster growth between DMF and dioxane systems, the rate of cluster growth in dioxane system is slower than that of DMF system, implying good miscibility between PBZ and dioxane. Moreover, microporous spherical particles are obtained from the isopropanol system due to the self-micelle-like formation.

Graphical Abstract


Solubility Parameter Gelation Time Carbon Aerogel Benzoxazine Phase Separation Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work has been financially supported by the Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University. The authors would like to thank Prof. Suwabun Chirachanchai for his kind support on the DLS apparatus. In addition, special thanks also go to the Office of Higher Education Commission for her support of the National Research University Program (WCU-048-CC-57).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uthen Thubsuang
    • 1
  • Hatsuo Ishida
    • 2
  • Sujitra Wongkasemjit
    • 1
  • Thanyalak Chaisuwan
    • 1
  1. 1.The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials TechnologyChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Macromolecular Science and EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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