Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 10, pp 3780–3784 | Cite as

Comminution limit (CL) of particles and possible implications for pumped storage reservoirs

  • J. E. Field
  • M. Farhat
  • S. M. Walley
Article

Abstract

Comminution (fragmentation) of solid particles is important in a range of technologies. An interesting effect is the so-called comminution limit (CL), which is effectively a brittle/ductile transition. Above the CL particles fail by fracture. However, as particle size decreases the amount of stored energy in the particle also decreases and eventually there is no longer sufficient stored energy in the particle to propagate a crack and the particle flows plastically. The CL depends on the hardness, H, and the toughness, K Ic. In mountainous countries, two-reservoir systems are used to generate and store power. When power is needed, water runs through the turbines to the lower reservoir. If there is excess power, water is pumped to the upper reservoir. This recycling of liquid through the turbines can break up entrained particles. Previous work in this area has been primarily concerned with sedimentation of the particles. The research reported in this paper uses the CL to calculate the particle sizes produced for different materials including different rock types. Interestingly, the particle sizes predicted mainly fall in the range where they sediment near the upper water surface. In such cases, the surface layers become opaque to sunlight and plant and animal life will be affected. It is suggested that the CL provides additional information which would assist research in this area. Where H and K Ic are not known for a particular rock type they should be measured.

Keywords

Sedimentation Velocity Brazilian Test Entrain Particle Pump Storage Power Pump Storage Power Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Professor J. E. Field thanks Dr M Farhat for the invitation to visit École Polytechnique Fédérale, Lausanne where this research was undertaken. Support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Project 2100-063842.00-1) is acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Shishacov N (1938) Mosaic blocks of silicate glasses. Tech Phys USSR 5:666–675Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonalumi M, Anselmetti FS, Kaegi R, Wuest A (2011) Particle dynamics in high-Alpine proglacial reservoirs modified by pumped-storage operation. Water Resour Res 47:W09523Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miracle RD, Gardner A (1980) Review of the literature on the effects of pumped storage operations on Ichthyofauna. In: Clugston JP (ed) Proceedings of the Clemson workshop on environmental impacts of pumped storage hydroelectric operations. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC, pp 40–53Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Potter DU, Stevens MP, Meyer JL (1982) Changes in physical and chemical variables in a new reservoir due to pumped-storage operations. Water Resour Res 18:627–633Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bezinge A (1987) Glacial meltwater streams, hydrology and sediment transport: the case of the grande dixence hydroelectricity scheme. In: Gurnell AM, Clark MJ (eds) Glacio-fluvial sediment transfer: an alpine perspective. Wiley, Chichester, pp 473–498Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hofmann A, Dominik J (1995) Turbidity and mass concentration of suspended matter in lake water: a comparison of two calibration methods. Aquat Sci 57:54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davies-Colley RJ, Smith DG (2001) Turbidity, suspended sediment, and water clarity: a review. J Amer Water Resour Assoc 37:1085–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bunn SE, Arthington AH (2002) Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environ Manage 30:492–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bühler J, Siegenthaler C, Wüest A (2005) Turbidity currents in an Alpine pumped-storage reservoir. In: Lee JHW, Lam KH (eds) Environmental hydrology and sustainable water management. A.A Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 239–244Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Finger D, Schmid M, Wüest A (2006) Effects of upstream hydropower operation on riverine particle transport and turbidity in downstream lakes. Water Resour Res 42:W08429Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anselmetti FS, Buhler R, Finger D, Girardclos S, Lancini A, Rellstab C, Sturm M (2007) Effects of Alpine hydropower dams on particle transport and lacustrine sedimentation. Aquat Sci 69:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chanudet V, Filella M (2007) The fate of inorganic colloidal particles in Lake Brienz. Aquat Sci 69:199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaun L, Finger D, Zeh M, Schurter M, Wüest A (2007) Effects of upstream hydropower operation and oligotrophication on the light regime of a turbid peri-alpine lake. Aquat Sci 69:212–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anderson MA (2010) Influence of pumped-storage hydroelectric plant operation on a shallow polymictic lake: predictions from 3-D hydrodynamic modeling. Lake Reserv Manag 26:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frank FC, Lawn BR (1967) On the theory of Hertzian fracture. Proc R Soc Lond A 299:291–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sargent GA, Chen Y-L, Conrad H (1989) Hertzian fracture of pyrex glass in impact loading. In: Ludema KC (ed) Wear of materials. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp 339–347Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hobbs DW (1964) The tensile strength of rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 1:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rumpf H, Schönert K (1972) Die Brucherscheinungen in Kugeln bei elastischen sowie plastischen Verformungen durch Bruckbeanspruchung. Dechema Monograph 69:51–86Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kendall K (1978) Complexities of compression failure. Proc R Soc Lond A 361:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hopkinson B (1914) The effects of the detonation of gun-cotton. Trans North-East Coast Inst Eng Shipbuild 30:199–217Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bowden FP, Brunton JH (1961) The deformation of solids by liquid impact at supersonic speeds. Proc R Soc Lond A 263:433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolsky H, Rader D (1968) Stress waves and fracture. In: Liebowitz H (ed) Fracture, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 533–569Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boddy RGHB (1943) Microscope observations of the crushing of coal. Nature 151:54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parish BM (1967) Effect of rank and particle size on plastic behaviour of coal. Br J Appl Phys 18:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steier K, Schönert K (1972) Verformung und Bruchphänomene unter Druckbeanspruchung von sehr kleinen Körnen aus Kalkstein, Quarz und Polystyrol. Dechema Monograph 69:167–192Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puttick KE (1979) Energy scaling, size effects and ductile-brittle transitions in fracture. J Phys D Appl Phys 12:L19–L23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kendall K (1978) The impossibility of comminuting small particles by compression. Nature 272:710–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karihaloo BL (1979) A note on complexities of compression failure. Proc R Soc Lond A 368:483–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hagan JT (1979) Micromechanics of crack nucleation during indentations. J Mater Sci 14:2975–2980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hagan JT (1981) Impossibility of fragmenting small particles: brittle–ductile transition. J Mater Sci 16:2909–2911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hird JR, Field JE (2004) Diamond polishing. Proc R Soc Lond A 460:3547–3568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williamson DM, Proud WG (2011) The conch shell as a model for tougher composites. Int J Mater Eng Innov 2:149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tabor D (1951) The hardness of metals. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whitney DL, Broz M, Cook RF (2007) Hardness, toughness, and modulus of some common metamorphic minerals. Am Min 92:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zapryanov Z, Tabakova S (1999) Dynamics of bubbles, drops, and particles. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cavendish Laboratory, Department of PhysicsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Hydraulic Machines LaboratoryEPFLLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations