Here we describe a new method for obtaining carbon nanocages at relatively low temperatures using a low-cost lignocellulosic waste material as carbon precursor. Coconut coir dust has been submitted to hydrothermal carbonization in the presence of clays minerals such as sepiolite, attapulgite, and montmorillonite followed by a demineralization step. Just after hydrothermal treatment, the samples prepared in the absence of the clays presented a sponge-like morphology as typically described for hard-plant tissues submitted to this treatment while the samples heated in the presence of clays were fundamentally heterogeneous. After chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, the sample free from clays exhibited irregular round-shaped particles with poorly defined cavities. For samples containing clays, on the other hand, the chemical etching lead to well-defined carbon nanocages as long as the particles were successfully etched such as attapulgite and montmorillonite. For sepiolite, however, the presence of residual inorganic particles was observed along with irregularly shaped hollow nanostructures. Finally, Raman measurements revealed the typical features of amorphous carbons.