Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 1292–1302 | Cite as

The influence of surface microstructure on the scratch characteristics of Kevlar fibers

  • Quinn P. McAllister
  • John W. GillespieJr.
  • Mark R. VanLandingham
Article

Abstract

In this work, nanoindentation and nanoscratching experiments are combined with atomic force microscopy to investigate the relationships between contact geometry, apparent friction, and deformation modes of two grades of Kevlar® (Dupont) fiber—Kevlar KM2 and Kevlar 49. Changes in the relative angle between the scratching probe and the fiber surface, often termed as the attack angle, result in changes in deformation mode, which correlate with the changes in the apparent friction. As attack angle increases, the observed deformation modes of the fiber surface change from a smoothing of the surface, often termed as ironing, to fibrillation, in which the fibrils break and coalesce in front of the progressing probe. A mixture of these two modes occurs at intermediate attack angles. When fibrillation occurs, material pile-up forms in front of the progressing probe. This pile-up introduces an additional component to the frictional response that is largely responsible for an increase in apparent friction with an increasing attack angle and/or scratch length. The level of friction associated with fibrillation is measured to be up to approximately three times higher than previously reported for Kevlar yarn–yarn friction. Fibrillation of Kevlar KM2 occurs at larger attack angles as compared to Kevlar 49, which is believed to be related to a near-surface region of reduced modulus and hardness previously observed in KM2 fibers. A detailed discussion of the measured response is given based on the interactions between the scratching probe and the fibrillar network and the resulting deformation mechanisms.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quinn P. McAllister
    • 1
  • John W. GillespieJr.
    • 1
  • Mark R. VanLandingham
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Composite MaterialsUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Materials and Manufacturing Sciences Division, Weapons & Materials Research DirectorateU.S. Army Research LaboratoryAberdeenUSA

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