Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 348–358 | Cite as

Effect of high pressure and high temperature on the microstructural evolution of a single crystal Ni-based superalloy

  • Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea
  • Stephan Huth
  • Werner Theisen
  • Thomas Fockenberg
  • Sumit Chakraborty


The application of high nearly hydrostatic pressures at elevated temperatures on the LEK94 single crystal (SX) nickel-based superalloy directly affects its microstructure. This is due to a combination of the effect of pressure on the Gibbs free energy, on the diffusion coefficients of the alloying elements, on the internal coherent stresses, and on the porosity distribution. The last effect depends at least on the first three. Therefore, based on the theoretical influences of the pressure, the main objective of this work is to understand, by means of an experimental work, the effect of high pressure at elevated temperature during annealing on the evolution of the phases morphology, and porosity of the high-temperature material LEK94. Specifically, pressures up to 4 GPa, temperatures up to 1180 °C, and holding times up to 100 h were investigated. The main findings are that, porosity can be considerably reduced without affecting significantly the γ/γ′ microstructure by high pressure annealing and the verification that increasing the external pressure stabilizes the γ′-phase.



The authors acknowledge support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through project B4 of SFB/Transregio 103 (Single Crystal Superalloys) as well as by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia through the Materials Research Department.


  1. 1.
    Reed RC (2006) The superalloys. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mälzer G, Hayes RW, Mack T, Eggeler G (2007) Metall Mater Trans A 38A:314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Völkl R, Glatzel U, Feller-Kniepmeier M (1998) Acta Mater 46(12):4395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Siebörger D, Knake H, Glatzel U (2001) Mater Sci Eng, A 298:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pyczak F, Neumeier S, Göken M (2009) Mater Sci Eng, A 510–511:295Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glatzel U, Mack T, Woellmer S, Wortmann W (2005) US Patent 2005254991 A1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ham RK (1961) Philos Mag 6(69):1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anton DL, Giamei AF (1985) Mater Sci Eng 76:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Software a4i Analysis.
  10. 10.
    Thermo-Calc and Dictra are trademarks of Thermo-Calc software.
  11. 11.
    TTNI7 is a product of Thermotech Ltd.
  12. 12.
    Ganguly J (2007) Thermodynamics in earth and planetary sciences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Padalko AG, Avdyukhin SP, Veselov AN, Nipan GD, Sanygin VP (2004) Inorg Mater 40(3):231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ardell AJ, Prikhodko SV (2003) Acta Mater 51:5013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mehrer H (2007) Diffusion in solids. Springer series in solid-state science, vol 155. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shewmon PG (1989) Diffusion in solids. Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mehrer H (1996) Defect Diffus Forum 129–130:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campbell CE, Boettinger WJ, Kattner UR (2002) Acta Mater 50(4):775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kamaraj M (2003) Sadhana 28(Parts 1 & 2):115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cormier J (2009) Mater Sci Eng, A 501:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schreuer J, Mazzolai G, Agudo L, Eggeler G, Hackl S (2010) Presented in EuroSuperalloys 2010 Conference, Kreuth, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prikhodko SV, Ardell AJ (2003) Acta Mater 51:5001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Béjina F, Jaoul O, Liebermann RC (2003) Phys Earth Planet Int 139:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wangyao P, Joypradit S, Tuengsook P, Homkrajai V, Khunthon S (2004) J Met Mater Miner 14(1):89Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wangyao P, Lothongkum G, Krongtong V, Homkrajai W, Chuankrerkkul N (2009) Chiang Mai J Sci 36(3):287Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lapin J, Gebura M, Pelachová T, Nazmy M (2008) Kovové Materiály-Metallic Materials 46:313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea
    • 1
  • Stephan Huth
    • 1
  • Werner Theisen
    • 1
  • Thomas Fockenberg
    • 2
  • Sumit Chakraborty
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl WerkstofftechnikRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und GeophysikRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations