Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 4036–4041 | Cite as

Interfacial reactions between Sn–57Bi–1Ag solder and electroless Ni-P/immersion Au under solid-state aging

  • Christopher Fuchs
  • Timo Schreck
  • Michael Kaloudis
Article

Abstract

Interfacial reactions between Sn–57Bi–1Ag and electroless Ni-P/immersion Au were investigated following isothermal aging at 85 and 130 °C. A long-term aging study confirmed two intermetallics at the solder/substrate interface. With scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, the metastable NiSn4 phase was detected coexisting with the stable Ni3Sn4 phase. The average thicknesses of both intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were graphically plotted versus the square root of aging time. The EDX showed that Ni3Sn4 nucleated first. However, after nucleation, the IMC of the NiSn4 phase grew faster than the one of Ni3Sn4 between 85 and 130 °C. For both temperatures, the growth constants were calculated and the corresponding activation energies were approximated. A high volume of Kirkendall voids appeared along the Ni3Sn4/NiSn4 interface at 130 °C, resulting in dramatic shear strength decline.

Keywords

Shear Strength Solder Joint Solder Alloy Ni3Sn2 Thermal Aging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Chen SW, Wang CH, Lin SK, Chiu CN (2007) In: Subramanian K (ed) Lead-free electronic solders: a special issue of journal of materials science: materials in electronics, 1st edn. Springer, New York, p 19Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abtew M, Selvaduray G (2000) Mater Sci Eng 27(5/6):95Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kang SK, Sarkhel AK (1994) JEM 23(8):701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suganuma K (2002) ESPEC Technol Rep 13:1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hwang JS (2001) Environment-friendly electronics: lead-free technology. Electrochemical Publications, Isle of ManGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dong W, Shi Y, Zhidong Xia, Lei Y, Guo F (2008) J Electron Mater 37(7):982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vianco PT (1999) Soldering handbook, 3rd edn. American Welding Society, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shangguan D (2005) Lead-free solder interconnect reliability. ASM International, Materials ParkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frear DR (2007) In: Subramanian K (ed) Lead-free electronic solders: a special issue of journal of materials science: materials in electronics, 1st edn. Springer, New York, p 319Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vianco PT, Kilgo AC, Grant R (1995) J Electron Mater 24(10):1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu Z, Shang P, Pang X, Shang J (2008) In: IEEE ICEPT-HDPGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kang T, Xiub Y, Liu C, Hui L, Wang J, Tonga W (2011) J Alloy Compd 509(5):1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen C, Ho CE, Lin AH, Luo GL, Kao CR (2000) J Electron Mater 29(10):1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yoon J, Lee C, Jung S (2002) Mater Trans 43(8):1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Young B, Duh J (2001) J Electron Mater 30(7):878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang J, Liu HS, Liu LB, Jin ZP (2006) J Electron Mater 35(10):1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haimovich J (1989) Weld J 68(3):102Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen C, Chen S (2003) J Mater Res 18(6):1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boettinger WJ, Vaudin MD, Williams ME, Bendersky LA, Wagner WR (2003) J Electron Mater 32(6):511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chuang HY, Chen WM, Shih WL, Lai YS, Kao CR (2011) In: Electronic Components and Technology Conference, p 1723Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glazer J (1994) J Electron Mater 23(8):693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kattner UR, Boettinger WJ (1994) J Electron Mater 23(7):603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang C, Kuo C, Chen H, Chen S (2011) Intermetallics 19(1):75CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Fuchs
    • 1
  • Timo Schreck
    • 1
  • Michael Kaloudis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Packaging and Integrated CircuitsUniversity of Applied Sciences, AschaffenburgAschaffenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations