Incorporation of lanthanide ions in lead titanate
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Lanthanide ion doping of lead titanate was investigated using structural and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Dense ceramics samples were prepared with starting compositions, Pb1−3x/2Ln x TiO3, assuming A-site substitution of Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy, at 2 and 8 at.%. Doping with La3+ reduced the tetragonality and cell volume. A systematic recovery in these values was observed for the smaller Ln3+ ions, suggesting the onset of partial substitution of the Ln ions at the B-site. The ferroelectric–paraelectric transition temperatures also recovered, consistent with an increased probability of B-site occupation with decreasing ion size. Evidence for site occupancy obtained from the presence cation vacancies is also discussed.
KeywordsDope Sample Cation Vacancy Positron Lifetime Lead Titanate Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy
AP-B and YM-G wish to thank the Third World Academy of Sciences (RG/PHYS/LA Nos. 99-050, 02-225 and 05-043), to the ICTP, Trieste-Italy, for financial support of Latin-American Network of Ferroelectric Materials (NET-43), and to thank to R. de Lahaye Torres for sample preparation. AP-B and DJK thank the Royal Society of London for short-term visitor and international travel awards. AP-B acknowledges to the Conseil Régional Languedoc-Roussillon for her invitation in the University of Nîmes, France.
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