Deformation-driven formation of equilibrium phases in the Cu–Ni alloys
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The homogeneous coarse-grained (CG) Cu–Ni alloys with nickel concentrations of 9, 26, 42, and 77 wt% were produced from as-cast ingots by homogenization at 850 °C followed by quenching. The subsequent high-pressure torsion (5 torsions at 5 GPa) leads to the grain refinement (grain size about 100 nm) and to the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloys containing 42 and 77 wt% Ni. The lattice spacing of the fine Cu-rich regions in the Cu–77 wt% Ni alloy was measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). They contain 28 ± 5 wt% Ni. The amount of the fine Ni-rich ferromagnetic regions in the paramagnetic Cu–42 wt% Ni alloy was estimated by comparing its magnetization with that of fully ferromagnetic Cu–77 wt% Ni alloy. According to the lever rule, these Ni-rich ferromagnetic regions contain about 88 wt% Ni. It means that the high-pressure torsion of the supersaturated Cu–Ni solid solutions produces phases which correspond to the equilibrium solubility limit at 200 ± 40 °C (Cu–77 wt% Ni alloy) and 270 ± 20 °C (Cu–42 wt% Ni alloy). To explain this phenomenon, the concept of the effective temperature proposed by Martin (Phys Rev B 30:1424, 1984) for the irradiation-driven decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions was employed. It follows from this concept that the deformation-driven decomposition of supersaturated Cu–Ni solid solutions proceeds at the mean effective temperature T eff = 235 ± 30 °C. The elevated effective temperature for the high-pressure torsion-driven decomposition of a supersaturated solid solution has been observed for the first time. Previously, only the T eff equal to the room temperature was observed in the Al–Zn alloys.
KeywordsSevere Plastic Deformation Equal Channel Angular Pressing Effective Temperature Interdiffusion Coefficient Supersaturated Solid Solution
The investigations were partly supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (contracts 09-03-92481, 09-08-90406 and 11-08-90439) and Israel Ministry of Science (contract 3-5790). Authors cordially thank Prof. A.M. Gusak for stimulating discussions.
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