Highly conductive paper fabricated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) by unidirectional drying
Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used to directly disperse multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into a stable solution without the aid of any other surfactants. The solution was coated onto paper substrates and was subsequently dried via two different methods: conventional multidirectional drying and a special unidirectional drying method with the aid of a ceramic heating board. The samples that were dried using the unidirectional drying method had a lower resistance than when dried with the conventional drying method, which allowed it to have a better conductivity. For solutions containing 1–4 mg/mL MWNTs, which were dispersed with 1 mg/mL PEDOT:PSS, the measured conductivity ranged from 21 ± 0.5 to 46 ± 10 S/cm. These values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than those obtained for MWNT films often reported in the literature as well as for films we fabricated using MWNTs dispersed with SDBS, or PEDOT:PSS solution by itself. AFM and SEM images showed that the surface of MWNTs films made with PEDOT:PSS as a surfactant was very smooth and the layers tended to be thinner than when made with the other surfactants. It was demonstrated using FTIR analysis that the MWNTs become part of the 3D structure of the paper substrate material because chemical bonding between the PEDOT:PSS, the MWNTs and the paper fibers occurred during the drying stage.
KeywordsSurfactant Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Paper Sample Paper Substrate Coated Paper
The authors acknowledge access to the MSE Laboratory facilities and the Institute for Paper Science and Technology at the Georgia Institute of Technology and partial support from the US Department of Energy, office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. Lianghui Huang is the recipient of a Chinese Government Doctoral Fellowship grant for International Research.
- 1.Roberts JC (1996) Paper chemistry. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 18.Fotherinigham DA (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 1:234Google Scholar
- 22.Pahari AK, Chauhan BS (2007) Engineering chemistry, 2nd edn. Infinity Science Press, Hingham, MAGoogle Scholar
- 25.Valentina P, Ilango K, Deepthi M, Harusha P, Pavani G, Sindhura KL, Keerthanan CG (2009) J Pharm Sci Res 2:74Google Scholar
- 26.Massicot F, Saleur D, Royon RP, Sudha AV, Portella C (2001) Synthesis 16:2441Google Scholar
- 27.Dixit BC, Patel HM, Desal DJ, Dixit RB (2009) J Chem 6:315Google Scholar
- 28.Prabhu SR, Rajasekhar M, Subramania A (2009) Int J Electrochem Sci 4:1289Google Scholar
- 29.Kumar S, Srivastava DN, Singhal S, Saini V, Seth AK, Yadav YC (2011) J Chem Pharm Res 3:563Google Scholar
- 31.Dixon JE, Stolper EM, Holloway JR (1995) J Petrol 36:1607Google Scholar
- 35.Schroder DK (1998) Semiconductor material and device characterization, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar