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Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 18, pp 6029–6045 | Cite as

Preparation and characterisation of cellulose nanofibres

  • E. H. Qua
  • P. R. HornsbyEmail author
  • H. S. S. Sharma
  • G. Lyons
Article

Abstract

Two different procedures were compared for the preparation of cellulose nanofibres from flax and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The first involved a combination of high energy ball milling, acid hydrolysis and ultrasound, whilst the second employed a high pressure homogenisation technique, with and without various pre-treatments of the fibrous feedstock. The geometry and microstructure of the cellulose nanofibres were observed by SEM and TEM and their particle size measured using image analysis and dynamic light scattering. Aspect ratios of nanofibres made by microfluidisation were orders of magnitude greater than those achieved by acid hydrolysis. FTIR, XRD and TGA were used to characterise changes to chemical functionality, cellulose crystallinity and thermal stability resulting from the approaches used for preparing the cellulose nanofibres. Hydrolysis using sulphuric acid gave rise to esterification of the cellulose nanofibres, a decrease in crystallinity with MCC, but an increase with flax, together with an overall reduction in thermal stability. Increased shear history of flax subjected to multiple passes through the microfluidiser, raised both cellulose nanofibril crystallinity and thermal stability, the latter being strongly influenced by acid, alkaline and, most markedly, silane pretreatment.

Keywords

Cellulose Lignin Fibril Hemicellulose Acid Hydrolysis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. H. Qua
    • 1
  • P. R. Hornsby
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. S. S. Sharma
    • 2
  • G. Lyons
    • 2
  1. 1.Polymers Cluster, School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK
  2. 2.Applied Plant Science DivisionAgri-Food and Bioscience InstituteBelfastUK

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