Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 18, pp 5977–5990 | Cite as

Density and plastic strain evaluations using small-angle X-ray scattering and finite element simulations for powder compacts of complex shape

  • L. H. Han
  • P. R. Laity
  • R. E. Cameron
  • J. A. Elliott
Article

Abstract

Previous work suggested that two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (2D-SAXS) could offer a new method for evaluating the local variations of density, strain and principal strain direction within powder compacts, which arise due to the effects of friction and die shape. In order to test this method further, this work compared results from 2D-SAXS with finite element (FE) simulations using a modified density-dependent Drucker–Prager Cap (DPC) model, for compacts of complex shape, prepared using a cylindrical die, a flat-faced upper punch and shaped lower punches with three different central protrusions. Variations in compaction behaviour were observed, which were due to friction against the die walls and the punch shape. Good agreement was obtained between SAXS measurements and FE simulation, supporting previous indications. Hence, this combination of experimental and computational techniques appeared particularly powerful for investigating powder compaction behaviour, in considerable accuracy and detail. Moreover, observations of the compaction behaviour in the vicinity of the central protrusion may be relevant to tablets with embossed features or compacted artefacts of more complex shape.

References

  1. 1.
    Laity PR, Cameron RE (2008) Powder Technol 188:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laity PR, Cameron RE (2009) Powder Technol 192:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Laity PR, Cameron RE (2010) Powder Technol 198:404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laity PR, Han LH, Elliott JA, Cameron RE (2010) J Pharm Sci 99:4380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laity PR, Cassidy AMC, Skepper J, Jones W, Cameron RE (2010) Eur J Pharm Biopharm 74:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sperl M (2006) Granular Matter 8:59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pitman EB (1998) Phys Rev E 57:3170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Busignies V, Leclerc B, Porion P, Evesque P, Courraze G, Tchoreloff P (2006) Eur J Pharm Biopharm 64:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu C-Y, Ruddy OM, Bentham AC, Hancock BC, Best SM, Elliott JA (2005) Powder Technol 152:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sinka IC, Burch SF, Tweed JH, Cunningham JC (2004) Int J Pharm 271:215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eiliazadeh B, Pitt K, Briscoe B (2004) Int J Solid Struct 41:5967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Djemai A, Sinka IC (2006) Int J Pharm 319:55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brewin P, Coube O, Doremus P, Tweed JH (2007) Modelling of powder die compaction. Springer Publishing Co., New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kremer DM, Hancock BC (2006) J Pharm Sci 95:517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cunningham JC, Sinka IC, Zavaliangos A (2004) J Pharm Sci 93:2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sinka IC, Cunningham JC, Zavaliangos A (2003) Powder Technol 133:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sinka IC, Cunningham JC, Zavaliangos A (2004) J Pharm Sci 93:2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samimi A, Hassanpour A, Ghadiri M (2005) Chem Eng Sci 60:3993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hassanpour A, Ghadiri M (2004) Powder Technol 141:251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michrafy A, Dodds JA, Kadiri MS (2004) Powder Technol 148:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Michrafy A, Ringenbacher D, Tchorelof P (2002) Powder Technol 127:257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sinha T, Bharadwaj R, Curtis JS, Hancock BC, Wassgren C (2010) Powder Technol 202:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sinha T, Curtis JS, Hancock BC, Wassgren C (2010) Powder Technol 198:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Picker KM (2000) Eur J Pharm Biopharm 49:267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sonnergaard JM (1999) Int J Pharm 193:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lordi NG, Cocolas H, Yamasaki H (1997) Powder Technol 90:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Skrinjar O, Larsson P-L, Storåkers B (2007) Trans ASME 74:164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Han LH, Elliott JA, Bentham AC, Mills A, Amidon GE, Hancock BC (2008) Int J Solids Struct 45:3088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dutt M, Hancock BC, Bentham AC, Elliott JA (2005) Comput Phys Commun 166:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roe R-J (2000) Methods of X-ray and neutron scattering in polymer science. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Higgins JS, Stein RS (1978) J Appl Cryst 11:346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    More information on Image-J and software downloads are available at: http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/
  33. 33.
    ABAQUS 6.7 documentation, ABAQUS Inc. 2007Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mehta A (2007) Granular physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (with contributions from Sir Sam Edwards, Blumenfeld R, Goldhirsch I, Claudin P)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zallen R (1998) The physics of amorphous solids. Wiley, New YokCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zavaliangos A, Galen S, Cunningham J, Winstead D (2008) J Pharm Sci 97:3291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Klinzing GR, Zavaliangos A, Cunningham J, Mascaro T, Winstead D (2010) Comput Chem Eng 34:1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bechard SR, Down GRB (1992) Pharm Res 9:521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ketolainen J, Ilkka J, Paronen P (1993) Int J Pharm 92:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wurster DE, Rowlings CE, Creekmore JR (1995) Int J Pharm 116:179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buckner IS, Friedman RA, Wurster DE (2010) J Pharm Sci 99:861Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Han
    • 1
  • P. R. Laity
    • 2
  • R. E. Cameron
    • 3
  • J. A. Elliott
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.School of Applied SciencesUniversity of HuddersfieldHuddersfieldUK
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and MetallurgyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations