Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 14, pp 4780–4786 | Cite as

Surface modification of Scots pine: the effect of process parameters on the through thickness density profile

  • Lauri RautkariEmail author
  • Kristiina Laine
  • Nick Laflin
  • Mark Hughes


This study evaluated the significance of different process parameters (press temperature, closing time, holding time, moisture content and compression ratio) on solid wood surface densification and its effect on the density profile generated in Scots pine sapwood. Changes in the microstructure of the wood were also evaluated microscopically. The results showed that with a shorter closing time, densification occurred closer to the sample surface than with an extended closing time. At a compression temperature of 150 °C, the vertical density profile exhibited a sharp peak in density that was close to the wood surface. A higher temperature of 200 °C resulted in a slightly broader density peak that was less intense and further from the surface. A holding time of 10 min resulted in the wood compressing to a slightly greater extent than when using a holding time of 1 min. Higher moisture content led to more extensive deformation. The results indicate that surface modification by densification is a viable method of enhancing wood properties.


Closing Time Compression Ratio Density Profile High Moisture Content Wood Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The study was partly funded by the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Vocational Training Foundation of Woodworking Men. This study was partly carried out in BC, Bangor University (UK) and Aalto University (Finland). Authors acknowledge all support what have been given those institutions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauri Rautkari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristiina Laine
    • 1
  • Nick Laflin
    • 2
  • Mark Hughes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products TechnologyAalto University, School of Chemical TechnologyAalto, EspooFinland
  2. 2.BC, Bangor UniversityBangorUnited Kingdom

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