Journal of Materials Science

, 45:287

The rapid solidification processing of materials: science, principles, technology, advances, and applications

Review

Abstract

The purpose of this technical manuscript is to present an explanation of rapid solidification processing in an easily understandable manner so that the technique is widely accepted and put to commercial practice by many working in the industries of materials processing and manufacturing engineering. The comprehensive review article presents a comprehensive overview of the widely accepted and used rapid solidification processes. To better, understand rapid solidification in comparison with conventional solidification, the intrinsic aspects and types of nucleation and the kinetics governing nucleation and subsequent growth of the crystal during rapid solidification are presented and discussed. The commercially viable methods for the rapid solidification processing of metal-based and even intermetallic-based composites are presented. The technically viable methods for the consolidation of rapidly solidified powders are discussed. A succinct description of notable recent advances in the technique of spray processing is presented. In the last section of this article, we highlight the key findings of selected studies in the area of rapid solidification processing of advanced metallic, intermetallics, and composite materials that have helped to advance the processing technique for emerging applications that is synchronous with advances in technology.

References

  1. 1.
    Savage SJ, Froes FH (1984) J Met 36(4):20Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duwez P, Willens RH, Klement W (1960) J Appl Phys 31:1136ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duwez P, Willens RH, Klement W (1960) J Appl Phys 31:1146ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klement W, Willens RH, Duwez P (1960) Nature 187:869ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilman JJ, Leamy HJ (eds) (1978) Metallic Glasses 1978. American Society for Materials International, Materials Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones H (1982) Rapid solidification of metals and alloys: monograph no. 8. The Institution of Metallurgists, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herman H (ed) (1981) Ultra rapid quenching of liquid alloys. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ashbrook RL (ed) (1983) Rapid solidification technology: sourcebook. American Society for Materials International, Metals Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ananthraman TR (ed) (1984) Metallic glasses: production, properties and applications. Trans Tech Publications, AedermannsdorfGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flinn JE (1985) Rapid solidification technology for reduced consumption of strategic materials. Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ananthraman TR, Suryanarayana C (1987) Rapidly solidified metals: a technological overview. Trans Tech Publications, AedermannsdorfGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Srivatsan TS, Sudarshan TS (1991) Rapid solidification technology: an engineering guide. Marcel Dekker Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Das SK, Kear BH, Adam CM (eds) (1985) Rapidly solidified crystalline alloys. The Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sastry SML, MacDonald BA (eds) (1986) Mechanical behavior of rapidly solidified materials. The Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Giessen BC, Polk DE, Taub AI (eds) (1986) In: Materials research society symposium proceedings, vol 58, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Froes FH, Savage SJ (eds) (1987) Processing of structural metals by rapid solidification. American Society for Materials International, Metals Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee PW, Carbonara RS (eds) (1988) Rapidly solidified materials. American Society for Materials International, Metals Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mehrabian R, Parrish PA (eds) (1988) Rapid solidification processing: principles and technologies IV. Claitors Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LouisianaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee PW, Moll JH (eds) (1988) Rapidly solidified materials: processing and properties. American Society for Materials International, Metals Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duwez P (1968) In: Bunshah RF (ed) Techniques of metals research, vol I. Interscience Publishers, New York, p 347Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pond RB, Maringer RE, Mobley CE (1976) New trends in materials fabrication. American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, p 128Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grant NJ (1978) In: Mehrabian R, Kear BH, Cohen M (eds) Rapid solidification processing: principles and technologies. Claitors Publications, Louisiana, p 230Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maringer RE, Mobley EC (1979) Wire J 12(21):70Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jones H (1981) In: Herman H (ed) Ultrarapid quenching of liquid alloys, treatise on materials science and technology, vol 20. Academic Press, New York, p 1Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jones H (1982) Rapid solidification of metals and alloys. The Institution of Metallurgists, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Suryanarayana C, Froes FH, Rowe RG (1991) Int Mater Rev 36(3):85Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lavernia EJ, Ayers JD, Srivatsan TS (1992) Int Mater Rev 37:1Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Armster SQ, Delplanque PP, Rein M, Lavernia EJ (2002) Int Mater Rev 47(6):1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lewis RE, PalmerIG, Eckvall JC, Sakata IF, Quist WE (1983) In: Proceedings of the third international conference on rapid solidification processing, Gaithersburg, MD, December 1982. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, p 613Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohen M, Kear BH, Mehrabian R (1989) In: Mehrabian R, Kear BH, Cohen M (eds) Rapid solidification processing: principles and technologies II. Claitor Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA, p 1Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perepezco JH, Furrer DV, Mueller BA (1988) Annual meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS), February 1988, Phoeniz, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jones H (1988) In: Kim YW, Griffith WM (eds) Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Alloys. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, p 57Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cochrane RF, Evans DV, Greer DV (1988) J Mater Sci Eng 98:99Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Willnecker R, Herlach DM, Feuerbacher B (1988) J Mater Sci Eng 98:85Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jones H (1987) In: Froes FH, Savage SJ (eds) Processing of structural metals by rapid solidification. American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, p 77Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Matyja H, Geissen BC, Grant NJ (1968) J Inst Met 96:30Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sarin VK, Grant NJ (1972) Metall Trans 3A:875ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grant NJ (1978) A review of various atomization processes. In: Mehrabian R, Kear BH (eds) Rapid solidification processing: principles and technologies. Claitors Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, p 230Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Klar E, Shaefer WM (1972) In: Burke JJ, Weiss V (eds) Powder metallurgy for high performance applications. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY, p 57Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dombrowski N, John WR (1963) Chem Eng Sci 118:203Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Lawley (1983) In: Ashbrook RL (eds) Rapid solidification technology: source book. American Society for Metals, Materials Park, Ohio, p 47Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee JB, Johnston GH (1978) Powder Technol 21:119Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirschorn JS (1969) Introduction to powder metallurgy. American Powder Metallurgy Institute, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gummeson PU (1972) Powder Metall 15:67Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Singer ARE, Coombs JS, Leatham AG (1974) In: Housner HH, Smith WE (eds) Modern developments in powder metallurgy, vol 8. Plenum Publishing House, New York, p 263Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shinde SL, Tenkoldar GS (1977) Powder Metall Int 9:132Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tallmadge JA (1978) In: Kuhn H, Lawley A (eds) Powder metallurgy processing: new techniques and analyses. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Klar E, Resko JW (1984) Powder metallurgy metal handbook, vol 7, 9th edn. American Society for Materials, Materials Park, Ohio, p 25Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rai G, Lavernia EJ, Grant NJ (1985) J Met 37:17Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Couper MJ, Singerand RF (1985) In: Steeb S, Warlimont H (eds) Proceedings of the fifth international conference on rapidly quenched metals. North Holland Publishing House, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Veistinen M, Lavernia EJ, Abinante M, Grant NJ (1987) Mater Lett 5(10):373Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baram J, Veistinen M, Lavernia EJ, Anbinante M, Grant NJ (1988) J Mater Sci 23:2457. doi:10.1007/BF01111903 ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Baram J (1988) Mater Sci Eng 98:65Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thompson JS (1948) J Inst Met 7:101Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Libera M (1987) Doctor of Science Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, JuneGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Perepezko JH (1984) Mater Sci Eng 65:125Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    McDonnell VG, Lavernia EJ, Samuelsen GS (1989) Proceedings of the annual meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS), February 28–March 3, Las Vegas, NevadaGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Flemings MC (1974) Solidification processing, chap 3. McGraw Hill Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Salas O, Levi CG (1988) Int J Rapid Solidif 4:1Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bower TF, Brody HD, Flemings MC (1965) Trans AIME 233:624Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levi CG, Mehrabian R (1982) Metall Trans 13A:221Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lavernia EJ, Gutierrez E, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1987) In: Proceedings of the 1987 annual powder metallurgy congress and exhibition. Progress in powder metallurgy, vol 43, p 683Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lavernia EJ, Gutiuerrez E, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1988) Int J Rapid Solidif 4(1, 2):89Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gutierrez E, Lavernia EJ, Trapaga G, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1989) Metall Trans A 20A:71ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lubanska H (1970) J Met 22:45Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Duwez P, Willens RH, Klement W (1960) J Appl Phys 31:1500ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Predeck P, Mullendore AW, Grant NJ (1965) Trans Metall Soc AIME 233:1581Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miroshnichenko IS, Salli IV (1959) Ind Lab 25:1463 (From (1959) Zavodskaya Lab 25:1398)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mobley CE (1971) Metallurgy and Applications of Rapid Solidification. Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mobley CE, Clauer AH, Wilcox B (1972) J Inst Met 100:142Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Strange EH (1911) United States Patent Number 993,904, Granted in 1911Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jones H (1969–1970) J Mater Sci Eng 5:1Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chu ME, Diron A, Granger DA (1985) In: Lee PW, Carbonara RS (eds) Rapidly solidified materials. American Society for Materials, Materials Park, p 311Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bewlay BP, Cantor B (1986) Int J Rapid Solidif 2:107Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Collins LE (1986) Can Metall Q 25(1):59Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Haour G, Boswell P (1987) Mater Des 8(1):10Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gutierrez Miravete E (1991) In: Srivatsan TS, Sudarshan TS (eds) Rapid solidification technology, an engineering guide. Marcel Dekker Publications, New York, p 3Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Singer ARE, Evans RW (1983) Met Technol 10(2):61Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lavernia EJ, Wu Y (1996) Spray atomization and deposition. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-95477-2Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Perepezko JH (1988) In: Nucleation kinetics: casting, vol 15A. ASM Metals Handbook, Metals Park, OH, p 101Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee JK, Aaronson HI (1975) In: Aaronson HI (ed) Lectures on the theory of phase transformations. The Metallurgical Society, Warrendale, PA, p 83Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lesoult G (1988) Fundamentals of growth in casting, vol 15A. ASM Metals Handbook, p 109Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Christian JW (1975) Chapter 10 in the theory of transformation in metals and alloys: part 1, 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Turnbull D (1969) Contemp Phys 10(5):473ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen HS (1980) Rep Prog Phys 43:353ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Argon AS (1982) J Phys Chem Solids 43(10):945ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gilmer GH (1984) Mater Sci Eng 65:15ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Flemings MC (1974) Chapter 2 in solidification processing. McGraw Hill Publishing House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Baker JC, Cahn JW (1971) Solidification. American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, p 23Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Flemings MC (1981) In: Tien JK, Elliott JF (eds) Metallurgical treatises. The Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, p 291Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rack HJ, Baruch TR, Cook JL (1980) In: Hasyadhi T, Kawata K, Umekawa S (eds) Science and engineering of composite materials. Japan Society for Composite Materials, Tokyo, p 1465Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rack HJ, Niskanen PW (1984) Light Met Age February:9Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chawla KK (1985) J Met 37:25Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rack HJ, Ratnaparkhi P (1988) J Met 40:55Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rack HJ (1988) Adv Mater Manuf Process 3(3):327Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hunt WH Jr, Cook CR, Armanie KP, Garganus TB (1987) In: Kumar P, Ritter A, Vedula K (eds) Powder metallurgy composites. Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Geiger AL, Walker JA (1991) J Met 43:8Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marcus HL, Bournell DL, Eliezer Z, Prasad C, Weldon WF (1987) J Met 12Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Elkabir G, Rakenberg LK, Prasad CV, Marcus HL (1986) Scr Metall 20(10):1411Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cebulak WS, Johnson EW, Marcus HL (1976) Mater Eng Q 16(4):37Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Harrigan WC (1984) In: Sixth annual conference on discontinuously-reinforced aluminum composite. Material Coordination Working Group, Park City, Utah, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Raybould D, Morris DG, Cooper GA (1979) J Mater Sci 14:2523. doi:10.1007/BF00737047 ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Morris DG (1982) In: Masumoto T, Suzuki K (eds) Proceedings of the fifth conference on rapidly quenched metals, vol 1. Japan Institute of Metals, Sendai, Japan, p 145Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Morris DG (1986) In: Mehrabian R, Kear BH, Cohen M (eds) Second international conference on rapid solidification processing. Claitoirs Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA, p 1Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cline CF, Hopper RW (1977) Scr Metall 11:1137Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Morris DG (1980) Mater Sci 14:215Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Iyer NC, Fine DA, Male AT (1984) In: Berman I, Schroeder JW (eds) Proceedings of the eighth international conference on high energy rate fabrication, San Antonio, Texas, p 137Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grant NJ, Pelloux RM (1972) In: Proceedings of the first army materials technology conference. Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Columbus, Ohio, p 317Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lenel FV (1980) Metal powder industries federation. Princeton, New Jersey, p 321Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lenel FV, Ansell GS (1982) J Met 34:17Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nueing HC (1982) Powder Metall 25(3):160Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morgan JT, Begel H, Doraivelu SM, Matson L, Martorell I, Thomas JF (1982) In: Koczak MJ, Hildeman GJ (eds) High strength powder metallurgy aluminum alloys. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, p 193Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Griffith WM, Kim YW, Fries FH (1986) In: Fine ME, Starke EA Jr (eds) Rapidly solidified powder aluminum alloys, ASTM STP 890. ASTM Publications, Philadelphia, PA, p 283Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    James WB (1985) Int J Powder Metall Powder Technol 21(3):163Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cahn HW, Dunham DP, Gibeling JC (1988) J Met 40Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Raybould D, Morris DG, Cooper GA (1979) J Mater Sci Lett 14:1011Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Morris DG (1981) Met Sci 15:116Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Morris DG (1983) Mater Sci Eng 57:187Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Peng TC, Sastry SML, O’Neal JE, Brasher D (1985) Metall Trans A 16A:1445ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gupta M, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1989) In: Mostaghci H (ed) Proceedings of the international symposium on advances in processing and characterization of ceramic-metal composites, CIM/ICM, vol 17. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p 236Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gupta M, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1990) Mater Manuf Process 5(2):165Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bricknell RH (1986) Metall Trans 17A:583Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fiedler HC, Sawyer TF, Koop RW, Leatham AG Jr (1987) J Met 39(8):28Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zhang LZ, Majewska-Glabus I, Vetter R, Duszcyk J (1990) Scr Metall 24(11):2025Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kojima KA, Lewis RE, Kaufman MJ (1989) In: Sanders TH Jr, Starke EA Jr (ed) Aluminum-lithium alloys V. Materials and Component Engineering Publications, Birmingham, p 85Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lavernia EJ (1989) Int J Rapid Solidif 5:47Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Willis TC (1988) Met Mater 4:485Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Singer ARE, Ozbek S (1985) Powder Metall 28(2):72Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Grant PS, Kim WY, Bewlay BP, Cantor B (1989) Scr Metall 23:1651Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Moran AL, Palko WA (1988) J Met 40(12):12Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gutierrez E, Lavernia EJ, Trapaga G, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1989) Metall Trans 20A:71Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Srivatsan TS, Lavernia EJ (1993) In: Ravi VA, Srivatsan TS (eds) Processing and fabrication of advanced materials for high temperature applications II. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, p 141Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gupta M, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ, Srivatsan TS (1993) J Mater Sci 28:2245. doi:10.1007/BF00367591 ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Apelian D, Wei D, Farouk B (1989) Metall Trans B 20:251Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Xu Yue, Lavernia EJ (1993) In: Ravi VA, Srivatsan TS, Moore JJ (eds) Processing and fabrication of advanced materials III. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zeng X, Nutt SR, Lavernia EJ (1993) In: Ravi VA, Srivatsan TS, Moore JJ (eds) Processing and fabrication of advanced materials III. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zhang Q, Rangel RH, Lavernia EJ (1996) Acta Mater 44(9):3693Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sampath S, Gudmundsson B, Tiwari R, Herman H (1988) Proceedings of the third national thermal spray conference, Cincinnati, October. ASM International, Metals Park, OhioGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tiwari, Herman H, Sampath S, Gudmundsson B (1991) In: Fishman SG (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on innovative inorganic composites. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sampath S, Tiwari R, Gudmundsson B, Herman H (1991) Scr Metall 25:1425Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Buhrmaster CL, Clark DE, Smartt HB (1988) J Met 40:44Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Parker DW, Kutner GL (1991) Adv Mater Process 149:68Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Buzby PO, Nikitich J (1991) Adv Mater Process 149:35Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Singer ARE (1970) Met Mater 4:246Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Singer AR (1972) J Inst Met 100:185Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Daugherty TS (1968) Powder Metall 2:342Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brooks RG, Leatham AG, Coombs JS, Moore C (1977) Metall Met Form 9:1Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Williams B (1980) Met Powder Rep 10:464ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Brooks RG, Moore C, Leatham AG, Coombs JS (1977) Powder Metall 2:100Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dube RK (1982) Powder Metall Int 14:108Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Evans RW, Leatham AG, Brooks RG (1985) Powder Metall 28(1):13Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Leatham AG, Brooks RG (1984) Mod Dev Powder Metall 15:157Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ogilvy AJ, Chesney PF, Metelman O (1988) Mod Dev Powder Metall 18–21:475Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    White J, Hughes IR, Willis TS, Jordon RM (1987) In: Aluminum lithium conference proceedings, Paris, France, JuneGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Willis TC, White J, Jordon RM, Hughes IR (1988) The microstructure and properties of aluminum-SiC composite material produced by spray deposition. Solidification processing conference. The Institute of Metals, LondonGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    White J, Willis TC, Hughes IR, Palmer IG, Jordon RM (1988) In: Kim YW, Griffith WM (eds) Dispersion strengthened aluminum alloys. The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, p 693Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ibrahim IA, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1991) J Mater Sci 26:1137. doi:10.1007/BF00544448 ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ibrahim IA, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1990) In: Khan T, Effenberg G (eds) International conference on advanced aluminum sand magnesium alloys. ASM International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p 745Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ast DG, Zielinski PG (1982) In: Proceedings of the third international conference on rapid solidification processing, Gaithersburg, Maryland, p 384Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Annavarapu S, Apelian D, Lawley A (1988) Metall Trans 198A:3077Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gupta M, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1991) Int J Rapid Solidif 6:247Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Liang X, Lavernia EJ (1992) Mater Sci Eng A153:646Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Liang X, Lavernia EJ (1991) Scr Metall Mater 25:1199Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Cahn RW (1991) MRS Bull 5:18Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Stoloff N (1989) Int Mater Rev 34:153Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Liang X, Earthman JC, Wolfenstine J, Lavernia EJ (1992) Mater Charact 28:3003Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Chigier NA (1991) In: Proceedings I-CLASS 91, NIST. US Department of Commerce, July 15–18, 1991, p 1Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    LeFebvre AH (1991) In: Proceedings I-CLASS-91, NIST. US Department of Commerce, July 15–18, 1991, p 49Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lupis CHP (1983) Chemical thermodynamics of materials. Elsevier, New York, p 345Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Turnbull D (1987) In: Collins EW, Koch CC (eds) Undercooled alloy phases. AIME-TMS, Warrendale, PA, p 3Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Annavarapu S, Apelian D, Lawley A (1990) Metall Trans A 21:3237Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Zhuang LZ, Majewskja-Glabus I, Vetter R, Duszezyk J (1990) Scr Metall Mater 24:2083Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Liang X, Kim H, Earthman JC, Lavernia EJ (1992) Mater Sci Eng A 152:646Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Gupta M, Mohamed F, Lavernia EJ (1992) Metall Trans A 23:831Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gupta M, Mohamed F, Lavernia EJ (1992) Metall Trans A 23A:844ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lavernia EJ, Wu Y, Xu Q, Srivatsan TS (2000) In: Proceedings of the third international conference on advances in composites, ADCOMP 2000, August 2000, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Singer ARE (1988) In: Sahai Y, Battles JE, Carbonara RS, Mobley CE (eds) Casting of near shape products. TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, p 245Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Annavarapu S, Apelian D, Lawley A (1988) Metall Trans 19A:3077Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Mathur P, Apelian D, Lawley A (1989) Acta Metall 37:429Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Liang X, Earthman JC, Lavernia EJ (1992) Acta Metall Mater 40(121):3003Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Liang X, Lavernia EJ (1993) Mater Sci Eng A 161:221Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Liang X (1991) Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CAGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Kruz W, Fisher DJ (1986) Fundamentals of solidification. Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, p 9Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Davies GJ (1973) Solidification and casting. Halsted Press, Wiley Publishing, New York, p 25Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Evans RW, Leathman AG, Brooks RG (1985) Powder Metall 28:13Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Singer ARE (1986) Met Powder Rep 3:223Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Apelian D, Wei D, Farouk B (1989) Metall Trans 20B:251Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Srivatsan TS, Lavernia EJ (1992) J Mater Sci 27:5965. doi:10.1007/BF01133739 ADSGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sampath S, Herman H (1988) In: Houck DL (ed) Thermal spraying advances in coatings technology. ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, p 1Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gupta M, Mohamed FA, Lavernia EJ (1992) Scr Metall Mater 26:697Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Flemings MC, Mortensen A (1984) Army Materials Laboratory final report AMMRC 7R 84-37, AD-A 150270, SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Meschter PJ, O’Neil JE (1984) Metall Trans 15A:237Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Das SK, Davis LA (1988) Mater Sci Eng 98:1Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lavernia EJ, Baram J, Gutierrez E (1991) Mater Sci Eng A 132:119Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Foerster GS (1972) Metall Eng Q 12(1):22Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Leimkuhler Motramn A, Palko WA (1987) Prog Powder Metall 43:711Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Bewlay P, Cantor B (1986) In: Lee P, Carbonara RS (eds) Proceedings of the ASM international conference on rapidly solidified materials. ASM Metals Park, Ohio, p 15Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ruhr M, Lavernia EJ, Baram J (1990) Metall Trans 21A:1785Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Lavernia EJ, Gutierrez E, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1988) Int J Rapid Solidif 4(1–2):89Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Lavernia EJ, Gutierrez E, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1987) Prog Powder Metall 43:683Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gutierrez E, Lavernia EJ, Trapaga G, Szekely J (1988) Int J Rapid Solidif 4(1–2):125Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Gutierrez E, Lavernia EJ, Trapaga G, Szekely J, Grant NJ (1989) Metall Trans A 20:71Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kujha H, Lawley A (1978) Powder metallurgy processing: new techniques and analysis. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Savitskii EM (1969) Palladium alloys. Primary Sources, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Field RD, Thoma DJ (1997) Scr Mater 37:347Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Timofeyev NI, Bereseneva FN (1991) Phys Met Metall 72:147Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Yang N, Bing Li, Robinson S, Lavernia EJ (2000) Metall Mater Trans 31A:1843Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Yang N, Guthrie SE, Ho S, Lavernia EJ (1996) J Mater Syn Process 4(1)Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kurz W, Fisher DJ (1986) Fundamentals of solidification. Trans Tech Publications, Aedermannsdorf, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Xu Q, Lavernia EJ (2001) Acta Mater 49:3849Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California, DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of AkronAkronUSA

Personalised recommendations