Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 22, pp 6155–6161 | Cite as

Mechanical behavior of Au–In intermetallics for low temperature solder diffusion bonding

  • Jie Lian
  • Steven Jan Wo Chun
  • Mark S. Goorsky
  • Junlan WangEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this study, gold (Au)–indium (In) intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation for low temperature solder bonding was investigated by imbedding a gold wire into the annealing indium solder. According to available research on liquid–solid reaction of gold and indium, experiments were only conducted at an annealing temperature in the range of 200–300 °C. To investigate the feasibility of forming the Au–In IMCs at lower temperature, a low annealing temperature of 160 °C was applied in this study, which is just above the melting point of indium of 156 °C. AuIn2 precipitates were confirmed to be predominately formed in the IMCs by X-ray diffraction. Different annealing times of 10, 40, and 120 min were applied to study the stabilization time of IMC AuIn2. With thermal considerations, AuIn2 was confirmed to form with a low annealing temperature of 160 °C, and a short annealing time of 10 min. In addition, the microstructure of the cross-sections in the interfacial region of the gold wire and indium solder was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of gold, indium, and their IMCs with different annealing times were studied by nanoindentation. Mechanical properties including reduced modulus and hardness were extracted after taking into account of the pile-up effect. Increased reduced modulus and hardness were observed with increasing annealing times, due to the strengthening of the atomic bonding in the compounds. The reduced modulus and hardness measured from nanoindentation indicate a significant strengthening of the indium solder by the AuIn2 nanoparticles.

Keywords

Gold Wire Increase Annealing Time Indentation Spot Maximum Indentation Depth True Contact Area 

Notes

Acknowledgement

J. Lian and J. Wang acknowledge the financial support from the University of California Academic Senate and the University of Washington Regents.

References

  1. 1.
    De Moor P (2008) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 591:224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ho PS, Wang G, Ding M, Zhao J-H, Dai X (2004) Microelectron Reliab 44:719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nah J-W, Kim JH, Lee HM, Paik K-W (2004) Acta Mater 52:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yeo A, Ebersberger B, Lee C (2008) Microelectron Reliab 48:1847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu YM, Chuang TH (2000) J Electron Mater 29:405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peng C-T, Kuo C-T, Chiang K-N, Ku T, Chang K (2006) Microelectron Reliab 46:523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laurila T, Vuorinen V, Kivilahti JK (2005) Mater Sci Eng R Rep 49:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simic V, Marinkovic Z (1977) Thin Solid Films 41:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kuhmann JF, Maly K, Preuss A, Adolphi B, Drescher K, Wirth T, Oesterle W, Fanciulli M, Weyer G (1998) J Electrochem Soc 145:2138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matijasevic GS, Lee CC, Wang CY (1993) Thin Solid Films 223:276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang TB, Shen ZZ, Ye RQ, Xie XM, Stubhan F, Freytag J (2000) J Electron Mater 29:443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chromik R, Vinci R, Allen S, Notis M (2003) J Miner Met Mater Soc 55:66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deng X, Chawla N, Chawla KK, Koopman M (2004) Acta Mater 52:4291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu L, Pang JHL (2006) Thin Solid Films 504:362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hlava P (2006) Microsc Microanal 12:1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    So WW, Lee CC (2000) IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 23:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oliver WC, Pharr GM (1992) J Mater Res 7:1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Bhushan B (2002) Mater Charact 48:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kese KO, Li ZC, Bergman B (2004) J Mater Res 19:3109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clerc DG, Ledbetter HM (1998) J Phys Chem Solids 59:1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bolshakov A, Pharr GM (1998) J Mater Res 13:1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Lian
    • 1
  • Steven Jan Wo Chun
    • 2
  • Mark S. Goorsky
    • 2
  • Junlan Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations