Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 23, pp 6223–6232 | Cite as

Nanosilica/PMMA composites obtained by the modification of silica nanoparticles in a supercritical carbon dioxide–ethanol mixture

  • D. Stojanovic
  • A. Orlovic
  • S. Markovic
  • V. Radmilovic
  • Petar S. Uskokovic
  • R. Aleksic
Article

Abstract

Nanosilica/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are used to improve the mechanical properties of neat PMMA polymer. In order to obtain superior mechanical properties, it is essential to achieve good bonding between the SiO2 nanoparticles and the PMMA matrix, which is typically achieved by coating silica nanoparticles with silane coupling agents. In this study, conventional and supercritical coating methods were investigated together with their influence on the mechanical properties of the obtained nanosilica/PMMA composites. The results indicate advantageous properties of nanosilica modified in the supercritical phase of carbon dioxide and ethanol in terms of particle size distribution, amount of coated silane, and dispersion in the PMMA matrix. Careful dispersion of the starting silica nanoparticles in ethanol at low temperatures in order to obtain a nanosilica sol plays an important role in deagglomeration, dispersion, and the coating process. The resulting nanosilica/PMMA composite containing nanoparticles obtained by supercritical processing of the nanosilica sol showed an increase in hardness by 44.6% and elastic modulus by 25.7% relative to neat PMMA, as determined using the nanoindentation technique. The dynamic mechanical analysis reveals that addition of nanoparticles as nanosilica sol and nanosilica gel enhances composite storage modulus by about 54.3 and 46.5% at 40 °C. At the same temperature, incorporation of modified silica nanoparticles with conventional method leads to an increase of 15.9% for the storage modulus, probably due to a large silica particle size and lower silane content in this sample.

References

  1. 1.
    Etienne S, Becker C, Ruch D, Grignard B, Cartigny G, Detrembleur C, Calberg C, Jerome R (2007) J Therm Anal Calorim 87:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garcia N, Corrales T, Guzman J, Tiemblo P (2007) Polym Degrad Stab 92:635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang YQ, Jiang SL, Wu LB, Hua YQ (2004) Polym Test 23:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jesionowski T, Krysztafkiewicz A (2001) Appl Surf Sci 172:18CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen H, Zhou SX, Gu GX, Wu LM (2005) J Dispers Sci Technol 26:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mahaling RN, Kumar S, Rath T, Das CK (2007) J Elastomers Plastics 39:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu Q, Ding J, Chambers DE, Debnath S, Wunder SL, Baran DR (2001) J Biomed Mater Res 57:384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ven Hoven BAM, DeGee AJ, Werner A, Davidson CL (1996) Biomaterials 17:735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daniels MW, Sefcik J, Francis LF, McCormic AV (1999) J Colloid Interface Sci 219:351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hong SG, Lin JJ (1997) J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 35:2063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu YH, Jada S, Xu R (1998) J Mater Res 13:1204CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsubokawa N, Shirai Y, Tsuchida H, Handa S (1994) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 32:2327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsubokawa N, Ishida H (1992) Polym J 24:809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cao C, Fadeev AY, McCarthy TJ (2001) Langmuir 17:757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Loste E, Fraile J, Fanovich MA, Woerlee GF, Domingo C (2004) Adv Mater 16:739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang ZW, Wang TJ, Wang ZW, Jin Y (2004) Powder Technol 139:148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klapperich C, Komvopoulos K, Pruitt L (2001) ASME J Tribol 123:624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nelea V, Morosanu C, Iliescu M, Mihailescu IN (2003) Surf Coat Technol 173:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morsi K, Patel VV, Moon KS, Garay JE (2008) J Mater Sci 43:4050. doi:10.1007/s10853-007-2225-2 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Olek M, Kempa K, Jurga S, Giersig M (2005) Langmuir 21:3146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin DC, Horkay F (2008) Soft Mater 4:669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uskokovic PS, Tang CY, Tsui CP, Ignjatovic N, Uskokovic DP (2007) J Eur Ceram Soc 27:1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shen L, Phang IY, Chen L, Liu T, Zeng K (2004) Polymer 45:3341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lam CK, Lau KT (2006) Compos Struct 75:553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Treece MA, Oberhauser JP (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 103:884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang R, Huang L, He W (2006) Polym Compos 27:282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Du M, Zheng Y (2007) Polym Compos 28:198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Secuianu C, Feroiu V, Geana D (2008) J Supercrit Fluids 47:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oliver WC, Pharr GM (1992) J Mater Res 7:1564CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang ZW, Wang TJ, Wang ZW, Jin Y (2006) J Supercrit Fluids 37:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Posthumus W, Magusin PCMM, Brokken-Zijp JCM, Tinnemans AHA, Vander-Linde R (2004) J Colloid Interface Sci 269:109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stojanović D, Vuković G, Orlović A, Uskoković PS, Aleksić R, Bibić N, Dramićanin M (2007) Ind Eng Res 4:93Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghosh SK, Deguchi S, Mukai S, Tsujii K (2007) J Phys Chem B 111:8169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kashiwagi T, Inaba A, Brown JE, Hatada K, Kitayama T, Masuda E (1986) Macromolecules 19:2160CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ciprari D, Jacob K, Tannenbaum R (2006) Macromolecules 39:6565CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hu Y-H, Chen C-Y, Wang C-C (2004) Polym Degrad Stab 84:545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu YL, Hsu CY, Hsu KY (2005) Polymer 46:1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tai Y, Qian J, Zhang Y, Huang J (2008) Chem Eng J 141:354CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Stojanovic
    • 1
  • A. Orlovic
    • 1
  • S. Markovic
    • 2
  • V. Radmilovic
    • 3
  • Petar S. Uskokovic
    • 1
  • R. Aleksic
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Center for Electron MicroscopyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations