Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 19, pp 5420–5427 | Cite as

Relaxor behavior of (1 − x)BaTiO3x(Bi3/4Na1/4)(Mg1/4Ti3/4)O3 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) ferroelectric ceramic

  • Liying WuEmail author
  • Xiaoli Wang
  • Jimmy H. Wang
  • Ruyan Guo
  • Amar S. Bhalla


The (1 − x)BaTiO3x(Bi3/4Na1/4)(Mg1/4Ti3/4)O3 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction route. Their dielectric properties were found to follow a modified Curie–Weiss law and an empirical Lorenz-type relation in respective temperature regions. Their dielectric relaxation times fit well with the Vogel–Fulcher relation for x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. For x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8, however, the fitting curves of Vogel–Fulcher relation showed certain deviation from the experimental data. Based on the theoretical treatment of Landau–Ginsburg–Devonshire theory, an approximate treatment of the E-field dependence of the permittivity was adopted and found to describe well the field dependence of the permittivity for x = 0.3 at temperatures equal to and below Tm (temperature of maximum dielectric permittivity). A combined Langevin-type expression used in the present work appears to give a good account for the field dependence of the permittivity, assuming polar regions are of a statistical cluster size. For polar clusters of linear dimension L ~ 4–8 nm for instance, the fitted values of polarization are in the range of P ~ 6.2–9.8 μC/cm2.


BaTiO3 Barium Titanate Relaxor Behavior Barium Titanate Ferroelectric Relaxors 



This work has been supported by US National Science Foundation under grant number NSF 0833000 and by US Office of Naval Research under grant number N00014-08-1-0854. One of the authors acknowledges the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project 50772087) and scholarship from China Scholar Council through the program of National study-abroad project for postgraduates of high level universities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liying Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaoli Wang
    • 1
  • Jimmy H. Wang
    • 2
  • Ruyan Guo
    • 2
  • Amar S. Bhalla
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Material PhysicsXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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