Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 2665–2673 | Cite as

The effects of a silane coupling agent on properties of rice husk-filled maleic acid anhydride compatibilized natural rubber/low-density polyethylene blend

  • N. A. Maziad
  • D. E. EL-Nashar
  • E. M. SadekEmail author
Article

Abstract

Blends of natural rubber and low-density polyethylene were prepared in different weight compositions in presence of dicumyl peroxide and maleic acid anhydride. The effects of rice husk (RH) content and a silane coupling agent, that is, 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (3-APE, 1 wt% of filler content) on the physicomechanical properties and mass swell of the tested blend were investigated. The incorporation of untreated RH into the blend improved Young’s modulus, hardness but decreased tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and mass swell. Incorporation of 3-APE has produced composite with improved tensile strength, Young’s modulus, hardness and impact strength with a sharp decrease in elongation, and better mass swell in comparison with untreated one. The effect of γ-irradiation doses on retained physicomechanical properties of RH (30 phr) filled blend samples before and after silane treatment was investigated at ambient temperature. The efficiency of silanized RH (30 phr) was also evaluated by the studies of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and thermal properties (thermal gravimetric analysis and thermal mechanical analysis).

Keywords

Impact Strength Natural Rubber Coupling Agent Rice Husk LDPE 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Norzalia S, Hanim H, Fuad MYA (1994) Plast Rubber Compos Process Appl 22:185Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Elliott DJ (1981) NR Technol 12(3):59Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nakason Ch, Nuansomsri K, Kaesaman A, Kiatkamjornwong S (2006) Polym Test 25:782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mathew M, Thomas S (2003) Polymer 44:1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feng W, Isayev AI (2004) Polymer 45(4):1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hassan A, Wahit MU, Chee ChY (2003) Polym Test 22:281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riley AM, Paynter CD, McGenity PM, Adams JM (1990) Plast Rubber Process Appl 14(2):85Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma N, Chang LP, Chu YL, Ismail H, Ishaiaku US, Ishak ZAM (2001) Polym Degrad Stab 71:381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ismail H, Nizam JM, Abdul Khalil HPS (2001) Polym Test 20:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Premalal HGB, Ismail H, Baharin A (2002) Polym Test 21:833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sae-Oui P, Rakdee C, Thanmathorn P (2002) J Appl Polym Sci 83(11):2485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar CR, Fuhrmann I, Kocsis JK (2002) Polym Degrad Stab 76:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ismail H, Nasir SM (2001) Polym Test 20:819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stefani PM, Jimenez A (2003) Thermal degradation of rice husk and other biomass materials in international perspectives on chemistry and biochemistry research. Nova Sci Publisher, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohamed Z, Ismail H, Bakar AA (2001) Proceedings of the 10th scientific conference electron microscopy society of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 8–10 November 2001, p 83Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siriwardena S, Ismail H, Ishiaku US (2001) Proceedings of the 10th scientific conference electron microscopy society of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 8–10 November 2001, p 208Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stefani PM, Garcia D, Lopez J, Jimenez A (2005) J Therm Anal Calorim 81:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    English B, Chow P, Bajwa DS (1997) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ismail H, Mega L (2001) Polym Plast Technol Eng 40(4):463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park BD, Wi SG, Lee KH, Singh AP, Yoon TH, Kim YS (2004) Biomass Bioenergy 27:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    EL-Nashar DE, Yehia AA (2007) Egypt J Text Polym Sci Technol 11(1):1Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abdel-Bary EM, Soden WV, Pechhold WW (1999) Polym Int 48:855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ismail H, Supri, Yousf AMM (2004) Polym Test 23:675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jamil MS, Ahmed I, Abdullah I (2006) J Polym Res 13:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pickering KL, Abdalla A, Ji C, McDonald AG, Franich RA (2003) Composites Part A 34:915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colom X, Carrasco F, Pages P, Canavate J (2003) Compos Sci Technol 63:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee BJ, McDonald AG (2000) Proceedings of the 5th Pasific Rim bio-based composite symposium, 2000, p 664Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bigg DM (1987) Polym Compos 8:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jilken L, Malhammer G, Selden R (1991) Polym Test 10:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Manson JA, Sperling LH (1976) Polymer blends and composites. Plenum Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nielsen LE (1974) Mechanical properties of polymers and composites. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matuana LM, Balatineez JJ, Park CB, Sodhi RNS (1999) Wood Sci Technol 33:259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Felix JM, Gatenholm P (1991) J Appl Polym Sci 42:609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fuad MYA, Shukor R, Ishak ZAM, Omar AKM (1994) Plast Rubber Compos Appl 21:225Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hong CK, Hwang I, Kim N, Park DH, Hwang BS, Nah C (2008) J Ind Eng Chem 14:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    John MJ, Francis B, varughese KT, Thomas S (2008) Composites Part A 39:352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bengtsson M, Oksman K (2006) Composites Part A 37:752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khan MA, Hassan MM (2006) J Appl Polym Sci 100:4142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Raj RG, Kokta BV, Groleau G, Deneault C (1989) Plast Rubber Process Appl 11:215Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim HS, Yang HS, Kim HJ, Park HJ (2004) J Therm Anal Calorim 76:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Park SJ, Cho KS (2003) J Colloid Interface Sci 267:86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang Z, Wong CP (2003) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 26(2):199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tate RS, Fryer DS, Pasqualini S, Montague MF, de Pablo JJ, Nealey PF (2001) J Chem Phys 115:9982CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymer Chemistry DepartmentNational Center for Radiation Research and TechnologyCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Polymer and Pigment DepartmentNational Research CenterCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Petrochemical DepartmentEgyptian Petroleum Research InstituteCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations