Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 2617–2627 | Cite as

Incorporation of waste materials into portland cement clinker synthesized from natural raw materials

  • Irvin A. ChenEmail author
  • Maria C. G. Juenger


For every ton of portland cement that is manufactured, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide is released from calcining limestone. One method of reducing the carbon dioxide from portland cement production is to reduce or eliminate the use of limestone through replacement with calcium oxide-bearing waste materials. In this study, portland cement clinker was synthesized using minimal limestone content and maximal waste material content, specifically fly ash and blast furnace slag. The synthetic cements were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and isothermal calorimetry. Results show that portland cement clinker can be successfully synthesized from a maximam of 27.5% fly ash and 35% slag. The synthetic cements possessed early-age hydration behavior similar to a commercial Type I/II portland cement. However, the presence of sulfur impurities contained in waste materials significantly affected phase formation in portland cement clinker.


Portland Cement Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag Portland Cement Clinker Free Lime Content Blaine Fineness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors express their thanks to the National Science Foundation for financial support (Grant No. CMMI 0448983), Texas Lehigh Cement Company for providing natural raw materials, Mr. Paul Stutzman from NIST for providing the phase lattice files used in Rietveld analysis, Ryan Chancey, a graduate student in our lab, for assistance with the Rietveld and multispectral image analysis, and Katherine McKeever, a former graduate student in our lab, for establishing the synthesis procedures for the four major cement phases.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Materials InstituteUniversity of TexasAustinUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

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